Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on effects of using animals to test substances. The protocols involved in the testing performed on these animals inflict a lot of pain on them, also severe suffering. The experiments include everything from testing new drugs to infecting the animals with diseases, burning of their skin, causing brain damage, maiming, blinding, implanting electrodes into the brain and other procedures that are very painful and invasive. There is a lot of severe suffering that comes along with this malicious practice such as. long-term social isolation as a result of being placed in labs to spend their entire life there, electric shocks during experimentation, repeated breeding and separation of infants from them, also withholding of food and water, which is a very inhuman thing to do to any living thing. In testing of toxins, for instance, the animals involved are expected to receive the test substance on daily basis, weekly and up to a period of two years without recovery periods, causing some animals to succumb before the end of the period intended for the study. Some animals are also killed after the end of the study if they proved to be strong enough and survived the research, apart from chimpanzees. Animals here are also restrained to prevent their free movement by use of restraining devices, by immobilizing specific parts of the animal’s body like the head and neck or still immobilize the whole body of the animal (Greer, Goodman and Pleus 2012). Stress experiments on rats and mice include their immobilization in tubes, forcing them to swim in order to avoid drowning, shocking their feet and painfully suspending them by their tails, which scientists claim to be of relevance to human anxiety and depression. Procedures like anesthetization, euthanasia, and intubation when performed in a wrong way equally subject an animal to extreme pain and discomfort and therefore require excessive training and skills. When these procedures are used, vital signs to make sure that the animal is adequately anesthetized are to be a monitored failure to which the animal will undergo extreme pain but with an inability to move.