You will prepare and submit a term paper on Human and Animal Interrelationships. Your paper should be a minimum of 750 words in length. Human and Animal Interrelationships from Domestication to Present: How Horses were still used in WWI Date Human and Animal Interrelationships from Domestication to Present: How Horses were still used in WWI Introduction Throughout history, humans and animals have been having inextricable relationships. The nature and scope of the relationship have, however, been differing depending on the type of animal and the benefits an animal has to humans. This relationship has been conceptualized in terms of bringing animals into the human realm. Conventionally, the relationships between humans and animals that have been regarded as domestic are very variable in respect to control of specific animals such as honey-bees, elephants, cats, horses, and cattle among others (Marchello 11). It is acknowledged that throughout history humans and animals have the social, economic and biological aspects. The domestication process in history involved changing animal species to enable them to effectively live and reproduce while close to human beings. For domestication process to be successful, human abilities were necessary so as to change the behavior of species. it included management and handling skills. Humans were required to have the ability of empathizing with animals in order to capture and tame animals. Horses are among the many animals that have close relationship with human beings and have and continue to be used for various purposes in the human society (Marchello 36). This paper will discuss human and animal interrelationships from domestication to present with particular reference to how horses were still used in WWI. The domesticated species filled particular niches of basic human physical needs: shelter through fibers and skins. social needs through military prowess, power and wealth. manure. mobility with transport. and food through blood, meat, and milk. Animals such as horses are used for entertainment where they are used for sports and other entertainment purposes. Horses have near unmatched military prowess compared to other animals (Morpurgo 19). History is awash with incidences where horses have been used in wars. In the World War One, horses were heavily used. they were involved in the first military conflict in the war involving the Great Britain in August 1914. Primarily, horses were used as a means of transport during the World War One. Many historians argue that the use of horses during this war marked a significant transitional period in the armed conflict evolution (Stephens, Billy and Alison 68). When the war broke out, both Germany and Britain has a cavalry force of about 100,000 men each. Initially, the cavalry units were considered important offensive elements of the military force and horses played an important role for the cavalry units. They were invaluable as a means of transporting materials for the soldiers. Considering that military vehicles were relatively new inventions and were prone to problems during that time, horses were considered as reliable means of transport because they required little upkeep and were more convenient (Ellis 29). During the World War One, horses were used in pulling artillery, as well as being used by soldiers to advance. Horses were largely used during this war as evidenced by historical records that indicate that more than 8 million horses died on all sides involved in the war (Morpurgo 42). Also, it is estimated that two and half million horses underwent treatment in veterinary hospitals with nearly two million of them being adequately cured and returned to duty. Mainly, the military used horses for purposes of logistical support during the war, as well as for reconnaissance. In addition, they were used to ferry passengers and for pulling supply wagons, ambulances, and artillery. Historians argue that the presence of horses was important in boosting the morale of the military personnel involved in the war (Ellis 116). The value of horses was very high that soldiers were finding it difficult to replace them. This was reflected by the statement of top military commanders who told the troops that the loss of a single horse could cause serious tactical problems even than the loss of human military personnel (Stephens, Billy and Alison 101). Conclusion It should be noted that while horses were invaluable in the World War One, there were other concerns that became apparent regarding them. For example, it was of great concern that they contributed to poor sanitation and diseases in military camps, largely caused by their carcasses and manure. Also, there was concern that they were increasingly becoming vulnerable to modern artillery fire and machine guns, a factor that was reducing their utility during the war. As a matter of fact, large number of horses was killed by modern artillery fire and machine guns in the battlefield. Works Cited Ellis, John. Cavalry: The History of Mounted Warfare. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd, 2004. Print. Marchello, Elaine. Human and Animal Interrelationships: From Domestication to Present. Kendall Hunt Pub Co, 2010. Print. Morpurgo, Michael. War Horse. London: Egmont, 1992. Print. Stephens, Harold S, Billy O’Neil, and Alison M. Miller. Death Sat on a Pale Horse: The World War One Diaries, Letters & Sketches of Harold Stephens & W. “billy” O’neil. Newstead, Vic: Midland Heritage Press, 2008. Print.