Write a 9 pages paper on human developed theories.  .These theories are outlined in turn, their similarities and differences are noted, and common criticisms are discussed to help understand the importance of each theory. The theories use stage models with similar concepts but organize them in different ways. the psychosocial theory has eight development stages that show how the child develops at each stage. on the other hand cognitive theory has four development stages that discuss the mental development of the child. Finally, the dominant stage in the two theories, the adolescent stage, is described, and some vital areas of the stage and the research based on it are mentioned.
According to Damon and Lerner (2006), human development reflects the view that individual functioning is an interactive product of biology, physical and social environments that are gradually changing and evolving over time. It emphasis the nature of human development is fundamental to understand the changes that occur in children from the day of birth and early adulthood. A child in the first three years of life experience is the period of immaturity and vulnerability that is longer than that of any other known species, and many skills need to be acquired, tried, modified and mastered ( Keenan, 2002). Therefore, much of the child’s time is spent in the care of nurturing, loving, protective adults who will provide the strong, predictable attachment and environments important for human development. The two types of human development, cognitive and psychosocial theories will help us understand the significance of development in human beings.
Erikson’s psychosocial theory is noted for its emphasis on the roles of social interaction and relationships as contributing to adaptive human development throughout the lifespan, it describes characteristic crisis, experienced predictably at different stages of the lifespan (Lerner, 2002). Development in each stage is assumed to build upon accomplishment of the earlier stage that helps to identify factors and processes that are likely to contribute to the observed decline in self-esteem that commonly occurs during these development stages.