Write a 2 pages paper on developmental psychology biological beginnings. Developmental Psychology “biological beginnings” With the advancement of the science and technology, new and improved methods and techniques are introduced in various circles of life. The human reproduction is a vast subject and encompasses a plethora of categories and issues. Birth control methods and assisted reproductive technology (ART) and cloning are some of the terms that are associated with human reproduction. Birth control methods focus on preventing pregnancies through various means while on the other hand ART, ectogenesis and cloning are related to various means of inducing pregnancies or creating human beings through highly advanced technologies. Nevertheless, these terms and technologies are linked to their own set of pros and cons and should be evaluated critically before adapting them as a part of one’s life.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has provided scientists with an easy answer to the different causes of infertility in women and men which are a barrier to conceiving a child.
Blocked fallopian tubes, damaged ovaries, low sperm count is some of the reasons that form the basis of various hurdles in achieving pregnancies. All over the world, more than 2 million children are born through the IVF technology or the other methods mentioned above (Squires 2007). Hence, ART has proved to help millions of couples worldwide in gaining the joy of children. However, ART is also associated with potential harmful outcomes in the offspring. These potential outcomes include congenital abnormalities, genetic disorders, preterm delivery and perinatal health issues, developmental delays, mental health abnormalities, disabilities and behavioral difficulties (Squires 2007). These possible results of an ART offspring bring into light the controversies related to credibility and the effectiveness of this technique and critical analysis before adapting this technology.
Ectogenesis is defined as the development and growth of an embryo in a completely artificial womb environment outside its mother’s natural womb environment. Ectogenesis has gained the level of a partial reality in and if it gains more popularity and is increasingly accepted will become a complete reality in the near future. Ectogenesis appears medically as an effective alternative for those mothers who are unable to become pregnant or cannot maintain pregnancy due to any medical reason. Another beneficial aspect of ectogenesis is that the embryo could be kept alive for the sake of tissues and organs which can be used later for organ transplant or other therapeutic purposes such as bone-marrow grafts, kidney transplants, and cornea transplants. Scientists and researchers against ectogenesis point out the consequences of procedure on the offspring. They put forward that the ectogenetic child might be missing the emotional or chemical bonding that he receives during a normal pregnancy. The child might grow up with certain mental or emotional developmental deficiencies or alterations. The unnaturalness of the procedure and the lack of mother-child relationship developed during the months of pregnancy are some other objectionable features of the procedure (Gelfand and Shook 2006).
Cloning of genes, cells and plants has lead to breakthroughs in the world of medicine, research and agriculture. Human cloning focuses on increasing the possibilities of reproducing human beings and increasing the therapeutic horizons. However, several ethical and moral issues are associated with human cloning. The cloned individual will never have his or her own personal identity unique and different from every other person. They might become a victim of discrimination and prejudice by other people. Cloning of human beings will also reduce the value of human life specifically for the cloned individual. Cloning also contradicts with several religious beliefs of people and applying it will create disrespect towards their religion and disorder in the scientific world (Fairbanks 2004).
When choosing birth control methods, it is important for the couple to understand the pros and cons of the various methods accessible. The effectiveness, possible side-effects and the potential outcomes should be carefully analyzed. Apart from the conventional methods available like male condoms, abstinence, informational methods (withdrawal, calendar rhythm methods, the ovulation method and symptothermal method), more advanced methods are also now on hand for the couples. Barrier methods such as cervical cap, sponge, spermicides protect against pregnancy but are not effective against sexually transmitted infections. Short-term and long-term hormonal methods include oral contraceptive pills are associated with adverse effects like abdominal pain, chest pain, headaches, and eye problems and severe leg pain. They also increase risk for heart attack. Nevertheless, they provide an easy and effective way of contraception (Human Kinetics 2010).
It is crucial for the couples to analyze the various pros and cons of the options available in the scientific world before reaching a final decision. These decisions revolve around a very conspicuous aspect of their life and hence, the options should be well balanced and thoroughly researched. ART and cloning provide new and enhanced options for those individuals who fail to conceive through the natural process. Ectogenesis provides an absolutely modernized and new method of having children for the mothers in spite of being associated with certain controversies and ethical issues. On the other hand, the modern birth control methods help the couples to plan their pregnancies effectively. Nevertheless, all technologies are associated with a plethora of ethical, social, medical and moral issues and should be considered carefully.
Fairbanks, S D. “Cloning: Chronology, abstracts and guide to books”. New York : Nova Science Publishers. 2004. Web. 29 June 2012. Gelfand, S and Shook, J R. “Ectogenesis: artificial womb technology and the future of human reproduction”. Amsterdam. New York: Editions Rodopi, B.V. 2006. Web. 29 July 2012. Human Kinetics. “Health and wellness for life”. Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics. 2010. Web. 29 June 2012. Squires, J. “Developmental outcomes of children born after assisted reproductive technologies”. Infants & Young Children, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 2–10, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. 2007. Web. 29 June 2012.