High protein and low carbohydrate diets are available in different names and brands such as, Paleo, South Beach, Dukan, Atkins etc., but all are based on the common principle, i.e., to lower the carbohydrate consumption and consume large amount of protein by adding protein-rich foods like, meat, eggs, fish, and dairy products in diet (Kennedy, n.d). Over the last few years, many books on high protein and low carbohydrate diets altogether sold thousands of copies in the US. Advocates of high protein and low carbohydrate diets argue that these diets encourage the metabolism process of adipose tissue, resulting rapid weight loss without any adverse effect in long-run (Bravata et al. 2003, p. 1838). However, various professional organizations, like the American Heart Association and the American Dietetic Association, have warned against the excessive use of such diets. There are concerns that these type of diets focus on changing one’s metabolism and achieve weight loss by eating protein-rich foods and avoiding sources of carbohydrates which may cause the increase in blood sugar levels in the body due to gluconeogesis process. Gluconeogenesis turns protein into glucose by means of cortisol hormones. High level of cortisol causes rapid glucose production from protein, which results in high blood sugar level.
Also, there are concerns that these diets can cause impaired metabolic functioning that may lead to serious medical problems, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, or dyslipidemia.