The Rosetta Stone (a very large stone slab discovered in 1799 by a soldier during the task of destroying a wall and now in the British Museum) (Manuelian 6) is particularly significant because it was the key, the opener to Egyptian hieroglyphs by which the world could gain a better understanding of ancient Egypt, its culture and its people (Budge).
The stone had text in three different forms of hieroglyphics, one of which was Greek that helped in the deciphering of ancient Egyptian (Egyptian Archaeology 5).
The Palermo Stone, a large piece of wall with inscriptions on each side and dated to around 2350 B.C. is also a significant find in that it contains a record of the Nile River – the height of floods – over a five year period, as well as a list of kings starting with the Menes and detailed accountings of the preceding 500 years, and thus provides an exceptional accounting of life in the “Old Kingdom (2700-2200 B.C.)” (Brock 2).
According to Manuelian “the most famous archaeological site in the world” (5) is the pyramids of Giza, a burial ground for hundreds of people from the Old Kingdom including royalty and others of eminence with their families, as well as three fourth dynasty kings (Manuelian 5). The tombs are significant in that they provide clear indications and illustrations of all facets of Egyptian life at the time, including its political and social system.
a pioneer in the study of Egypt before 3100 B.C.. wherein he devised a new system of dating and sequencing graves in order to generate a chronology of the time (Shaw 21), and was thus a founder of scientific archaeology in Egypt. Bratton (qt. in Sedra 251) argues that Petrie “transformed archaeology from an undocumented collection of antiquities to a deliberate reconstruction of history by the location of artifacts”. He also discovered a number of tombs, towns, and temples and taught a number of other well-known archaeologists such as Howard Carter who later discovered Tutankhamun’s tomb and Margaret Drower the first woman to join the ranks of Egyptologists (Shaw 24).