Types of Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion in a Steam Turbine

Provide a 5 pages analysis while answering the following question: Types of Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion in a Steam Turbine. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. Centrifugal pumps called displacement pumps to employ the concepts of forces in physics in their operation (eHow par 5). Newton’s laws of motion which are useful in the analysis of the operation of centrifugal pumps are derivatives of force.

Steam turbines apply the basic principles of thermodynamics in their operation. Superheated steam at high temperature and pressure enters the turbine. There are two main types of turbines based on the forces that act on them, to turn the turbine wheel, namely. Impulse turbines and Reaction turbines. The high energy steam is converted into kinetic energy using nozzles in impulse-based turbines. For a reaction turbine, the steam is converted into kinetic energy that is sent to the blades of the turbine. A force created on the blades due to the difference in pressure provided the motion to the turbine. If a generator is attached to the shaft of the turbine, electricity is produced stored and utilized in various appliances. Applying the first law of thermodynamics the rate at which work is developed per unit mass can be obtained assuming there is no heat transfer to the immediate environment and that there is no net that kinetic energy and potential energies in comparison to the specific enthalpy of the system (eHow par. 7)

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According to Newton’s second law of motion, the change in momentum produces impulsive force, a force that acts on a body for a short time creating an enormous change in momentum (Woodruff 33). These impulse turbines are made up of rings of nozzles followed by rings of blades. Notably, high pressure, high energy steam is allowed into the nozzles then it is let into a region of lower pressure, high velocity in a different direction. As a result, the changing direction and high velocity produce an impulsive force that acts in the direction of rotation of the turbines. Thus according to Newton’s second law of motion, the rate of change in momentum is directly proportional to the external force producing the change and it takes place in the direction of the force (Woodruff 32).

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