oup-level resistance which includes resistance to change due to group norms, group cohesiveness and groupthink and escalation of commitment. as well as 3) individual-level resistance which includes resistance to change due to uncertainty and in security, selective perception and retention as well as habits (Bushman, M., 2008. George et al.).
In an organization, when change threatens jobs, power or status in an organization, when threat is perceived to be so real and large, resistance can be expected. Absence of consultation before effecting change can result to negative acceptance of the proposed change. When introducing a change, it is important that it is properly communicated. Rewards and possible benefits for adopting change should be fair enough for the adjustments as well as investments involved.
The common cause for resistance is the parochial self-interest. When this change deviates from the self-interest of the people involve, expect resistance to crop up. Another cause of resistance to change can be misunderstanding and lack of trust. People would usually look for hidden agenda in a change proposal. When there is misunderstanding on the objectives behind a change, increasing resistance can be observed (Rogers and Shoemaker, 1971).
Another cause of resistance to change is contradictory assessments and low tolerance for change. When the proposed change conflict the assessments of the people, there is a tendency to prove that their assessment is the opposite of those proposing the change. There also people who have low tolerance for change. Once these people reach a level when they can accept change anymore, the tendency is to repel the change since they cannot take more of it (Worren et al., 1999).
Other reason for resistance is when the elements of the organization feel threaten. If the elements in the organization feel that their status or security is threaten (loss of comfort, pay or status), they would naturally repel change.