Synthesize the Peer Review PSYC- 8207-3 History and Systems of Counseling and Psychology James Bohn Walden July 21,

Write 1 page thesis on the topic synthesize the peer review. Synthesize the Peer Review PSYC- 8207-3 History and Systems of Counseling and Psychology James Bohn Walden July 21, Synthesize the Peer Review

Mental illness involves a combination of emotional, neurological, functional and psychological disturbances in human consciousness, leading to problems in the personal or professional life. All of the five articles under review in this essay revolve around the topics of neuroscience and psychology, referencing the primacy of the brain in influencing consciousness and behaviour. The problems relating to brain physiology are reflected in the states of mind related to mental illness. (Cherry, 2011) Similarly, the processes taking place in our brain also provide the solutions to human existential problems, and the changes made possible by neuro-plasticity in the human brain can bring in one’s life together again. Precisely how the activities of brain should be treated so as to make the most out of a person’s mental capacity is one of the themes of this reading. Primarily I would like to emphasize the variety of theory and practice related to the personal and professional treatment of mental illness in this essay.

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Mental issues are found in psychological clinics where professional psychiatrists are available to help people find treatment for the mental issues they suffer, using both special therapies and their own innate intelligence. It was historically noted by the author Lightner Witmer in his article that psychiatrists should receive extensive medical training on psychology before dealing with the people who are going through these diseases. (Witmer, 1907) There are also psychological clinics which were particularly built for the children who were suffering from mental problems, emphasizing issues and treatment of children differently from adults. Moreover, clinical psychology must be pursued as a specialized career, with a personal focus on teaching, research, conducting and managing community programs, etc. in order to be successful.

One of the traditional processes used by psychiatrists to treat the patients of mental illness is personal introspection. Introspection is a way through which a person can learn about his or her own on-going mental activities, thoughts, beliefs and judgements through awareness. Introspection helps people to find out the reasons for the problems existing in their mind and then strives for a practical solution. However, researchers sometimes disagree on the accurateness of introspective judgements, either in broad or in narrow terms, by referring to many cases in which people go wrong in determining critically the truth of their own experiences. (Dunlap, 1912) Because of this, there appears to be a huge inconsistency inherent in this process, and more scientific methodologies are required in psychology.

Another method which plays an important role in tackling the problems of human mind is Psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis deals with human inspirations, activities, personal growth, and life experiences shared by common values in human nature. (Freud, 1910) Psychoanalysis is used as a treatment for those who confront psychological problems through Freudian theory and bear personal introspection upon the intricacies of their own life through dream interpretation and other methods of reflection on emotions. This treatment is based on the aspects of mind observed by individuals across society and history in the clinical environment as related to mental illness, as well as theoretically establishing what determines the patients’ personal sentiments and behavior patterns. Because these aspects are often unconscious, they may not be able to be unveiled without the help of a Psychoanalyst, even through the guidance of family, friends and other resources. Psychoanalysis treatment identifies personal aspects of mind and behavior, inquiring as to how they are affecting the emotions, behavior and relations of an individual in the social environment. (Freud, 1910) Freudian theory then traces the history of these aspects in cultural expression and how they have evolved over time in collective values, beliefs, and moral systems, to help the individual to understand these difficulties in order to live the life in a better way.

Finally, the client-centered approach in psychology and counseling is an important aspect of the modern treatment of mental illness, and can be seen as a practice in which the patient recognizes the problematic personal attitudes and the counselor suggests a redirection of human activities in social relationships. This approach has three main distinct elements. First, the ‘Predictable Process of Client-Centered Therapy’ has the main characteristic of promoting predictability in the therapeutic process. This is found in both statistical and clinical patterns of development. Second, the ‘Discovery of the Capacity of the Client’ represents a process where psychiatrists try to find out the characteristics, strengths, abilities, weaknesses and many other aspects of an individual’s life. Third, the ‘Client-Centered Nature of the Therapeutic Relationship’ focuses on the relationship between the client and the counselor. (Rogers, 1946) If the counselor can build a relationship of affection and understanding, then no matter how suspicious or distrustful the client is, the patient will eventually start trusting the counselor and allow the counselor to apply the treatment therapy. In summary, all these five articles show how to use different techniques from the history of psychological theory as well as the practice of psychiatry and counseling in order to develop treatment and therapy programs which address personal mental illness and behavioral issues in society. Consequently, these theories of psychological treatment advance the ability of patients to live their lives peacefully and fully in wisdom. (Cherry, 2011)

References List

Dunlap, K. (1912). The Case against Introspection. Psychological Review, 19, 404-413.

Cherry, K. (2011, June 16). What is clinical psychology? Retrieved from:

Freud, Sigmund. (1910). The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis. American Journal of Psychology, 21, 181-218.

Rogers, C.R (1946). Significant Aspects of Client-Centered Therapy. American Psychologist, 1, 415-422.

Szasz, T.S (1960). The Myth of Mental Illness. American Psychologist, 15, 113-118.

Witmer, L. (1907). Clinical Psychology. Psychological Clinic, 1, 1-9.

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