Steal Making.

This paper explores steel making, fabrication techniques, material science and properties that make steel one of the most useful components in engineering and construction.

Steel is the most important metallic material used in engineering and construction. In 2013 alone, the net global steel production was 1,607.2 million metric tons. China, the largest producer, contributed almost 49% of the total global output, the European Union’s total output of 779.0 million metric tons. Overall, the world’s steel production has increased steadily, signaling the rising importance of steel (Yap 20). Steel has been previously used for the production of tools and other implements in many parts of the world before it became the most common material in modern times. Steelmaking has continually evolved from the ancient production in bloomery furnaces to the current efficient mass production (Murr 42).

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Steel is itself not a singular material, but rather a combination primarily composed of iron and carbon which form an alloy. Other components of steel include manganese, phosphorous, silicon, oxygen and sulfur. Mass production of steel became more efficient starting in the 17th Century with the development of blister and crucible steel (Murr 50).

In 1856, the Englishman Henry Bessemer invented a steel smelting technique called the Bessemer process. The entry of the Bessemer process in the 19th Century was perhaps the defining point for mass steel production. Other production techniques such as the Siemens-Martins process and the Gilchrist-Thomas process followed, but they served to refine the steel production process further. Steel is, therefore, popular for construction and many other uses since unlike other forms of iron such as wrought iron. it is harder and possesses tensile strength. The report shall describe the various processes undertaken in the formation of steel (Huaixiang, Zhang and Xingqi n.p).

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