In one of its earliest forms during the early twentieth century, Chinese movement led by the Han majority began to overthrow the Qing dynasty under which China was ruled by the Manchu .Ethnic nationalism views the nation as politicized ethnic group and often produces a state -seeking movement to create an ethnic nation-state. After the fall of the Qing in 19121, the Kuomintang (KMT) and the CCP in 1949 defined as a multi ethnic political community.
In general the rise of modern nationalism in China has played a great role in the contemporary China. Therefore the nature and role of this Nationalism can be assessed in terms of economical aspects, political conditions, military developments and enhancement of foreign relations as explained below:-
Prior to 1978, the Chinese economy was centrally planned. However, after this period the Chinese leadership, started moving the economy to a more market oriented system .The system still works under the control of the communist, but the economic influence as non-state managers and enterprises has been increasing steadily. The Chinese authorities have adopted a system of household responsibility in agriculture instead of the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small scale enterprise in services and manufacturing, as well as opened the economy of increased foreign trade and investment. The developments of economic growth in china can be assessed in the the following sectors.
China is the largest producer and consumer of agricultural products. Half of China’s labor force is engaged in agriculture, even though only 10% of the land is suitable for cultivation and agriculture contribute only 13% of china’s GDP. China produces about 30% more crops and livestock than U.S. because of intensive cultivation. Largely china produces rice, wheat, Soya beans, vegetables, tea and pork. Major food crops include cotton, fibers and oil seeds.
Industry has posted major gains especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and
opposite Taiwan where foreign investment helped spurs output of both domestic and export goods. Major industries are mining or processing, steel, aluminum, coal, machinery, textile, Petroleum, cement, fertilizers, toys, electronics, automobiles and telecommunications.
d) Science and Technology.
China’s political leadership comes almost from technical background and has a high regard for science. Chinese science strategists see China’s greatest opportunities in newly emerging fields such as biotechnology and computers.
Further US-China science and technology has remained the framework for bilateral cooperation. Recently technology agreement was to extend science and technology. Agreement was signed the agreement. The agreement covers cooperation in areas such as Marine conservation, renewable energy and health.
China has advanced in Trade.