Journal 2 Chapter 4: The Enlightenment and the Revolution of the mind Human civilization began in the 18th century. In this age people challenged the religious, and political and economic theories and assumptions of the day. Talks in social places like salons or coffeehouses were about machines, natural laws and the moral responsibilities of education and religion. Thinkers of this time believed that natural law governed the universe and that man could learn and apply those rules. (66). Major contributors in the enlightenment included: John Locke, who questioned whether children are born with innate ideas inherited from parents or they, are adopted from the society (68). Also, Jean Le Rond Dalembert, who together with Denis Diderot developed the encyclopaedia that was a compilation of works on trade and mechanical arts (75). Another author who contributed significantly is Mary Wollstonecraft, who advocated the womens positions (85), and Adam Smiths wealth of nations (87) among other works provided to the education.
Chapter 16: Europe Transition
Europe started interacting with the rest of the worlds as early as in the seventeenth century especially with the discovery and settlement in the New World. They had knowledge in ship and gun making which gave them a higher advantage (394). France development was based on mercantilism that required the government to maximize on trade by monopolizing trade with its colonies (395). Europe benefited from slavery and its colonies (399). In the mid eighteenth century, it faced international rivalry. the European nations involved in wars that further split to the colonies (404). Europe suffered seven years of war (1756-1763) that ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. The treaty left Britain in an economic crisis, and their efforts to get funding from America were frustrated by the American Revolution, which ultimately resulted to declaration of American Independence.
Chapter 17: Enlightenment and Revolution, 1700-1850
This period was characterised by a desire for change. Leaders in the enlightenment believed that a man could comprehend the process of nature and manipulate them to their advantage. The ideas of Isaac Newton and John Locke were the forerunners of this knowledge (416). There was development of the print culture, the volume of printed material increased including books, journals and newspapers among others (417). The scholars who were mainly university professors helped expand the print culture (419). They were critical about most religious institutions arguing it hindered pursuit of rational life (420). Publication of the encyclopaedia also contributed to the understanding (423). They also applied their knowledge in politics. division of political power in France (424). Women especially in France also helped promote the careers of the scholars for example Mary Wollstonecraft.
Chapter 18: Enlightenment and Revolution of France
The seven of years in the French Monarch (1756-1763) acted as a principal foundation of the French revolution. The war caused an economic crisis, and the government was in need of money that gave the nobles an opportunity to demand the reconvening the Estates General from Louis XVI (442). The nobles and bourgeoisie became empowered, and this created fear among the peasants and they aimed at limiting the powers of the aristocratic class (444). However, on 4th August 1789 the nobles renounced their privileges and hence they all came under the same laws (446). Women were however not allowed to hold political positions, and their 5th October March successfully led to the National Constituent Assembly reconstruction of the National constitution. It is where their rights were declared among another amendment that included confiscating of the Roman Catholic land and property to repay debts, and this led to the royal family attempting to flee France. The new country under the National Assembly was however not very stable. (448-449).