Provide a 4 pages analysis while answering the following question: Case management concepts to care for patients with high-risk complex needs. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. Existing literature on the subject of case management has often found that it is successful and beneficial to the patient, their families and their caregivers (Bergen 1992. Pugh et al. 2001. Riegel, Carlson, Kopp, LePetri, Glaser & Unger 2002). Case management can be especially beneficial for patients that have high-risk complex needs, such as elderly patients with congestive heart failure and diabetes, and it appears to be cost effective and improve patients’ quality of life (Pugh et al. 2001). An example of using case management for patients with congestive heart failure is described in an article by Riegel et al. (2002). The study aimed to determine if a standardized telephonic case-management intervention had any effect on reducing the number of resources utilized by patients (Riegel et al. 2002). Participants in the study received standardized calls from a case manager on a regular basis over the six months of the study. Results of this study indicated that the phone calls did significantly decrease the resources required by patients (Id.). The telephonic case-management intervention also resulted in significantly lower costs for patient care. Basically, the study results found that the telephonic case management resulted in significant decreases in physician office visits, hospital days, emergency department visits, and rates of rehospitalization (Id.). Interestingly, the study also found that some of the telephonic case management interventions were more effective than others. However, it is not clear which factors of the intervention actually influence the effectiveness of the results and further research is needed in this area (Id.). Other studies assessing the effectiveness of case management in patients with congestive heart failure also found that case management intervention was beneficial to the patients (Laramee, Levinsky, Sargent, Ross & Callas 2003. Pugh et al. 2001). In fact, nearly all of the research on the subject of using case management strategies with congestive heart failure patients found the intervention could be linked to decreased hospital readmission, cost savings and improved functional health status (Laramee et al. 2003). Another population which can benefit from case management intervention is the population of older people living in the community (Bergen 1992. Bernabei et al. 1998). Existing literature on the subject seems to indicate that integrated community care that includes case management strategies has positive effects on the elderly population that is living in the community (Bernabei et al. 1998).In fact, Bernabei et al. (1998) found the intervention led to reduced risk of hospitalization and reduced length of stay in the hospital or nursing home, less physical decline among patients, and reduced health care costs. Case management strategies have also been beneficial to elderly diabetic patients, especially those living alone (Huang, Wu, Jeng & Lin 2004). Elderly diabetes patients that live alone face a number of challenges and often cannot perform self-care independently (Huang et al. 2004). Through home-based case management intervention patients can be educated in diabetes self-management (Funnell et al. 2007).