Third, the Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) defined “public relations [as] about reputation” and “the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organization and its publics” (Langley, 2009).
The roles of public relations practitioners are diverse, depending on the size, nature, and aims of their organizations. Their roles can include, but not limited to, the following: (1) cause or relationship marketing- creating and preserving relationships to build customer loyalty. (2) communication- sharing ideas, messages, or opinions through verbal/nonverbal/oral expressions. (3) community relations- build relationships between/among organizations that impact one another. (4) crisis management- responding to different kinds of crises and maximizing potentially positive outcomes. (5) integrated marketing communication (IMC)- merging PR, marketing, and advertising to attain a uniform marketing approach. (6) issues management- identifying organizational issues and responding to them. and (7) media relations- creating relationships between media and the organization (Johnston & Zawawi, 2014). The goal of this paper is to describe how a PR campaign is planned and managed in general across different organizations and sectors.
The purpose of planning PR campaigns is to attain order and some control and predictability over them (Gregory, 2010). Planning provides a sense of direction, clarification of important aims and goals, and ability to manage objectives, as well as processes and outcomes (Austin & Pinkleton, 2015). In addition, public relations must function to support and align itself with organizational vision, mission, and goals (Gregory, 2010). Strategic planning improves the ability of PR to determine PR’s contribution to the company, the processes and steps involved to attain aims and objectives, and metrics and standards for evaluation (Gregory, 2010).
Planning refers to analyzing