In the 18th century Kashmir was ruled by the Muslim Pashtun Durrani Empire. In 1819 Kashmir was conquered by the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh.
Following the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1845 and 1846, Kashmir was first ceded by the Treaty of Lahore to the East India Company, and shortly after sold by the Treaty of Amritsar to Gulab Singh, Raja of Jammu, who thereafter was given the title Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir.From then until the Partition of India, Kashmir was ruled by the Hindu Maharajas of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu although the majority of the population were Muslim, except in the Jammu region. 1)BACKGROUND: In 1947, British rule in India ended with the creation of two new nations: the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan while British suzerainty over the 562 Indian princely states ended. In 1843 the Britain sold Kashmir to Ghulam Singh in 7. 5 million rupees.According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, the states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population while having a Hindu ruler (Maharaja Hari Singh.
) On partition Pakistan expected Kashmir to be annexed to it. In October 1947, Muslim revolutionaries in western Kashmir and Pakistani tribals from Dir entered Kashmir intending to liberate it from Dogra rule. Freedom fighters marched toward Sarinagar and occupied 6 miles erritory. Unable to withstand the invasion, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession that was accepted by the government of India on 27 October 1947. As the result of 1965 war the valley of Jammu and Kashmir has been divided in fourth parts: i)Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir: This is Indian occupied territory. ii)Azad Jammu and Kahsmir: This is under in Pakistani administration iii)Northern Areas: Qarakaram, Gilgit, Biltistan They are separated and have their own administration by their self. iv)Aksai Chin:This is under the control of China.
China occupied on this territory on war of 1962. 2)INDIAN PERSPECTIVE: Indian viewpoint is succinctly summarized by Ministry of External affairs, Government of India: • India holds that the Instrument of Accession of the State of Jammu and Kashmir to the Union of India, signed by Maharaja Hari Singh on 26 October 1947, was completely valid in terms of the Government of India Act (1935), Indian Independence Act (1947) and international law and was total and irrevocable. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1172 tacitly accepts India’s stand regarding all outstanding issues between India and Pakistan and urges the need to resolve the dispute through mutual dialogue and does not call for a plebiscite. • United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 cannot be implemented since Pakistan failed to withdraw its forces from Kashmir which was the first step in implementing the resolution. • India does not accept the two-nation theory that forms the basis of Pakistan and argues that Kashmir, despite being a Muslim-majority state, is in many ways an “integral part” of secular India. The state of Jammu and Kashmir was provided significant autonomy in the Article 370 of the Constitution of India. • All differences between India and Pakistan including Kashmir need to be settled through bilateral negotiations as agreed to by the two countries when they signed the Simla Agreement on 2 July 1972.
• Insurgency and terrorism in Kashmir is deliberately being fueled by Pakistan to create instability in the region. The Government of India has repeatedly accused Pakistan of waging a proxy war in Kashmir by providing weapons and financial assistance to terrorist groups in the region..Indian policy toward Kashmir they operate their policy by three levels: i)Local ii)Bilateral level iii)International level i)Local Level: At local level the principle of Indian by save Army to crash of freedom fighter. And manipulating and try to constraint different freedom groups. ii)Bilateral Level: Indian always kept all friendly pedicure for negotiation……..
India never desalted for talk but the reasalti …… Is that India never accepting freedom of Pakistan? iii)International Level: The Indian policy as primarily aim at objective: Pakistan is trying to raise anti-India sentiment among the people of Kashmir by spreading false propaganda against India. According to the state government of Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistani radio and television channels deliberately spread “hate and venom” against India to alter Kashmiri opinion. • India points out at various reports by human rights organizations condemning Pakistan for the lack civic liberties in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. According to India, most regions of Pakistani Kashmir, especially Northern Areas, continue to suffer from lack of political recognition, economic development and basic fundamental rights. India has asked United Nations that it should not be leave unchallenged or unaddressed claims of moral, political and diplomatic support for terrorism, which were clearly in contravention of United Nations Security Council resolution that makes it mandatory for member states to not provide active or passive support to terrorist organizations. Specifically, it has pointed out that the Pakistani government continues to support various terrorist organizations, such as Jaish-e-Mohammad and Lashkar-e-Taiba, in direct violation of this resolution. 3)PAKISTANI PROSPECTIVE:Pakistan says that Kashmir is a disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir.
Pakistan always keep same just Jammu and Kashmir is occupied territory exception of India. Pakistan seas fire signed under the coercive pressure. And is here no legal and moral justification. And because the UN security council also accept the self deternation of the Kashmiri people and that’s way UN resolution still alive and effective. Atal Bihari Vajpai visited to Pakistan in January 1999, because Bhartia Janta Party always tried to solve Kashmir issue.Vajpai came in Pakistan by bus service. Prime Minister Nawaz Shareef and Bihari Vajpai signed a declaration that called Lahore Declaration.
In that time raised Kargil issue in October 1999, taken over by the Chief of Army Staff. When Musharaf was President of Pakistan, he invited by Atal Bihari Vajpai (PM of India). They signed a declaration in July 2002, at Agrah, that is called Agra summit. These are the efforts was made by the Pakistan. 4)POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS OF KASHMIR DISPUTE:Several options have been proposed for solution of the Kashmir dispute but this intricate problem has remained un-solved causing enormous financial and material costs to all parties to the conflict. Although list of proposals for resolution of Kashmir dispute is quite large but the following major possible solutions have been put forward from time to time to resolve the dispute of Kashmir. i)Plebiscite ii)Line of Control (LOC) as International Border iii)Independent Kashmir iv)United Nations Trusteeship In the following pages I have examined the above solutions and their implications for Pakistan and India.
I)UNITED NATIONS PLEBISCITE: On 2nd November 1947 speaking on all Indian Radio Pundit Jawaharlal Lal Nehru said, “Fate of State of Jammu ; Kashmir is ultimately to be decided by the people. The pledge we have given not only to people of Kashmir but also to the world. We will not and cannot back out of it”. The United Nations resolutions of August 13, 1948 and January 5, 1949, proposed the plebiscite option for resolving the Kashmir dispute. These resolutions laid down the principles and procedures for a free and impartial plebiscite under UN auspices.Both India and Pakistan accepted the United Nations Resolutions. The Indian Government would never be ready to accept the right of option under international supervision because it is aware that there is no possibility of winning the plebiscite and majority of population would vote against Indian occupation.
But due to some facts there is no possibility of solution on the basis of the United Nations resolutions, as India would never agree for their implementation. II)LINE OF CONTROL (LOC) AS INTERNATIONAL BORDER:Resolution of dispute on basis of line of control or ceasefire line was proposed by Indian leadership immediately after end of first Pakistan – India war (1947-48), which ended under an arrangement worked out through United Nations and a cease-fire was agreed with effect from 1st January1949. It virtually divided Kashmir in to Pakistan administered Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas and Indian occupied valley, Jammu and Ladakh around 63% of total land of former State of Jammu ; Kashmir occupied by India. The name of cease-fire line (740 km) was changed under Simla agreement 1972 as line of control (LOC).In the United Nations maps Kashmir is still being shown as disputed territory. It is quite evident that any settlement on basis of line of control is not possible as both parties have contradictory views in the matter. III)INDEPENDENT KASHMIR OPTION: Over the last 57 years political manipulations, Indian repression, rigging of elections and broken promises has created a sense of alienation among Kashmiri population and they have become more defiant and assertive.
The option of Independent Kashmir was not part of the United Nations Resolutions as at that time Security Council. Pakistan although in ast had refused to endorse the independence option but in changed environment may be willing to consider the idea of independent Kashmiri country for Valley. The idea of Independence for Kashmir means surrender of authorities and sovereignty to a United Kashmir by both India ; Pakistan. IV)UNITED NATIONS TRUSTEESHIP OPTION: There is a proposal that to resolve the issue of Kashmir for some time the territory may be placed under control of trusteeship of United Nations and after a period of ten to fifteen years the matter may be referred to the people for the final verdict with regard to future status of the State.This arrangement will provide a face-saving arrangement for India, and will also give Kashmiris, on both sides of Line of Control, enough time to decide their future without any pressure or compulsion from any country or group. India has been insisting that occupied Kashmir is its integral part. There is no possibility that India will agree to UN trusteeship.
However India continues to hold fixed position on Kashmir and appears to be not considering any other option outside Indian constitution as such there is no possibility of India agreeing to proposal of trusteeship under U.N. O. ***** 27-10-2010 to 4-11-2010 PAKISTAN – UNITED STATES RELATIONS INTRODUCTION: Pakistan – United States relations are the relations between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the United States of America. The United States established diplomatic relations with Pakistan started on October 20, 1947. The relationship since then was based primarily on U. S.
economic and military assistance to Pakistan. Pakistan is a Major non-NATO ally of the United States. THE INITIAL YEARS 1947-1952:After the creation of the two countries, Pakistan followed a more pro western policy whereas the Indian government defined its foreign policy with a more leftist to non aligned stance. Pakistan was looking for strong friends in order to persuade its bigger and much stronger neighbor India to give in to its claims over the territory of Kashmir. Pakistan also needed financial support for its infrastructure development and modernization of its armed forces. Right from the beginning the founder father of Pakistan sent its representative to the US government for financial and military assistance.Pakistan based its case on the post World War scenario of confrontation between the Soviet Union and the West.
Pakistan contented that the Soviet Union wanted to get access to the Arabian Sea and to increase its influence in the Middle East. Pakistan was a nation beyond Afghanistan that could avert such Soviet designs. Pakistan as a Muslim state had no affiliations with the communists and was a natural regional ally for the United States. On the other hand, the ruling party in India, the Indian National Congress, and India’s leaders were closer in ideology to socialism and the Soviet Union.As a US ally in the region, Pakistan could provide a foot hold for the US in the region against any Soviet expansionist efforts in South Asia. From the US perspective, the United States was more occupied in the post war reconstruction in Western Europe and Japan, its containment efforts in South East Asia and the Middle East. The United States in the initial years of Pakistan was less interested in getting involved in the emerging conflicts of South Asia.
The Pakistanis wanted to strengthen their relations with the US so as to get an advantage in their confrontation with India over Kashmir.On the other hand, the US did not see the usefulness of a strong relationship with Pakistan and US interests in Pakistan were limited. The Kashmir dispute dragged on despite UN Security Council resolutions that were agreed upon by both Pakistan and India in 1949 for a ceasefire and proposal for a plebiscite. The Kashmir issue remained unresolved and became the main bone of contention between India and Pakistan resulting in three subsequent wars. THE EVOLVING RELATIONS ; AYUB ERA 1952-1969: Prospects for Pakistan’s relations with US improved after Republican Eisenhower came to power in 1952 in the White House.Pakistan pushed its case as an ally that could provide support for Middle East security and in return it asked for military and economic support for its flail economy. Unstable domestic politics had led to political and economic distress while the bureaucratic and military officers were getting stronger in the country.
The Republican government was more receptive of the Pakistani position and its claims of anti communist stand and an available allied state. Pakistan joined with Turkey as member of the Middle East Defense Organization (MEDO) in 1954. This allowed Pakistan to formally seek aid as a regional ally of the US.In January 1955, Pakistan joined South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO) with a view to adding security to the East Asian flank of anti communist alignment. However, it was not clear how Pakistan’s role in both these organizations would actually materialize in the case of an actual conflict. However, for the Pakistanis, becoming part of these alliances allowed the country to create stronger links with the US administration and seek increasing aid. In September 1955, Pakistan became a member of the Baghdad Pact organization which later became known as CENTO.
Turkey, Iran and Iraq were its earlier members with the US as the backer of the security arrangement. The role of this organization was similar to the earlier MEDO as a northern-tier defense arrangement against communist influence in the Middle East. “In the end, neither the Baghdad Pact not SEATO amounted to much militarily. …Joining the Baghdad Pact and SEATO gave Pakistan a strengthened claim on US resources and, in turn, the US acquired an even larger stake in Pakistan’s well being. As Pakistan’s president Ayub Khan put it in his biography, “Friends Not Masters”, Pakistan had become America’s “most allied ally in Asia”.A key development from Pakistan’s perspective was the amount of development and military aid that started in 1954 and increased to $500 million by 1957 as a result of Pakistan’s joining the regional defense organizations and allying with the USA. During the second Eisenhower term, the relations between the two countries became even stronger.
Pakistan’s Army Chief staged a military coup in 1958 and later became the President of Pakistan. Field Marshal Ayub Khan had developed strong relations with the Americans and his era from 1958 to 1969 turned out to a strong era of US- Pakistan relations.In 1959, Aub’s government allowed the US to set up an intelligence facility in Badaber, NWFFP province and operate U2 surveillance flights over the Soviet Union from its Peshawar Airport. This arrangement and the closer relationship of the Pakistani government with the US administration allowed it to acquire increasing military hardware and arms for its defense services. The issue troubling the US was Pakistan’s closer relations with China. The Indians and Chinese had fought a war in 1962 in which China had given India a bloody nose.As a result Pakistan moved to improve and strengthen its relations with China in order to position itself as a stronger foe for India.
However, Pakistan’s growing friendship with communist China irked the US who was facing a proxy war against the communists in Vietnam. Pakistan and India fought a war in 1965 that was an ill fated affair started by a limited guerilla war in Kashmir that Ayub started in order to pressurize India to come to the negotiating table over Kashmir. However, as the war spread, Pakistan could not sustain a long term conflict and asked for a truce and both forces moved back to their previous borders.BHUTTO EAR 1972 – 1977: Prime Minister Bhutto initially focused his attention with normalizing the domestic situation in the country. The Government of Pakistan signed a truce with India, recognized the government of Bangladesh and eventually the 90,000 prisoners were returned by India. The major challenge for the new government came in May, 1974 when India executed an underground nuclear test. This forced the Pakistanis to also seek a nuclear weapons program to match India’s capabilities.
This became a major cause for concern for the US administration.Pakistan started efforts to acquire a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France and a heavy water facility from West Germany. During Bhutto’s government Pakistan’s foreign policy was aligned to see ka balance between its relations with China, Russia and the USA. Pakistan placed a special emphasis on its relations with the Arab countries in the Middle East. During Ford and later Jimmy Carter’s administration, sanctions were placed on Pakistan related to export control and restriction of aid grants. Prime Minister Bhutto called elections in March 1977 from which he gained a landslide victory.However, the opposition blamed it on massive rigging and started a public campaign to oust Bhutto.
Prime Minister Bhutto claimed in public rhetoric that the American were behind the opposition movement and wanted to punish his government for its nuclear weapons program and alignment with the Arabs. In July 1977, the Army seized power in a coup for the third time in the country. General Zia initially promised elections but later firmed his grip on the government and started a murder trial against Bhutto which eventually led to Bhutto’s hanging for the alleged crime in 1979. ZIA ERA 1977 – 1988:After hanging the former Prime Minister, Zia strengthened his hold on the government and used a cover of Islamic reforms to give credibility to his government. Jimmy Carter’s administration developed closer relations with India while Pakistan was more or less isolated due to its new military dictators. On the nuclear front, General Zia continued the previous policy of Bhutto in acquiring and developing capabilities for nuclear weapons. The chilling relations between the US and Pakistan took another a U-turn when the Soviet Army entered neighboring Afghanistan in December 1979 to support the local communist government.
Just four days after the Soviet invasion, On December 29, 1979, Jimmy Carter approved a broader covert action program that instructed the CIA to provide military weapons and ammunition …for the Afghan anticommunist fighters, who soon became widely knows as “mujahideen”…At Pakistan’s insistence, the CIA funneled all aid through the Pakistani intelligence service ISI, which in turn handed over supplies to Afghans. With the Reagan Administration in the White House, the support for the covert war in Afghanistan increased along with the value of he Pakistani cooperation. Pakistan was rewarded with a $3. 2 billion aid package for the next six years. As the Afghan war progressed more than three million refugees entered Pakistan. During this period, Pakistan was considered a valuable ally and the US ignored the increasing developments on the nuclear front as well as the human rights abuses by the Zia regime. The success of the Afghan war effort was crucial for the American Administration as it was bled the Soviet Government and placed huge pressure in terms of resources.
Fed up with the costs of the war and covert operations by the mujahideen, supported by the CIA and the Pakistani ISI, by 1988, the Russians had had enough and were ready for a respectable evacuation from Afghanistan. The usefulness of Pakistan for the USA with respect to Afghanistan, thus, ended when Mikhail Gorbachev agreed to a retreat in April 1988. General Zia died in a mysterious plane crash months later in August 1988 and political elections were held in Pakistan. BENAZIR BHUT AND NAWAZ SHAREEF ERA: 1988 – 1998:After the 1988 elections, Benazir Bhutto, the daughter of former Prime Minister Bhutto, came into power. Until 1990, the $600 million military and economic aid that had started after the Afghan War effort by the US had continued. However, every year, the US president had to certify under the Pressler Amendment, enacted in 1984, that Pakistan did not posses a nuclear device. “After October 1, 1990, passed without certification, the $564 million economic and military aid program approved for fiscal year 1991 was frozen.
At the time, Pakistan was the third-highest recipient of US aid; only Israel and Egypt received more assistance” (Refrence 1) . At this point the main occupation of the Pakistan government was to try to create a friendly mujahideen regime in Afghanistan, continue to develop its nuclear and missile program and support the militant insurgency in Kashmir. Since the US and Pakistani interests had diverted at this point, with the Soviets retreating from Afghanistan and the US involved in the Middle East, the Pakistanis felt isolated by their “old friend” and “ally”.Domestic politics, once again, became unstable and four successive governments in Pakistan were dissolved one after another in a matter of 11 years with the Army, as always, the main power broker among the political stalwarts. Benazir held the Prime Minister’s office twice from 1988-1990 and from 1993-1996. Her main opponent, Nawaz Sharif, held office from 1990-1993 and 1996-1999. Gross fiscal mismanagement, political instability and US sanctions created large fiscal deficits and the governments borrowed heavily from international lenders.
The Clinton Administration had a tilt towards the more democratic Indian government during this time.The Pakistanis contented that the Pressler Amendment was specific to Pakistan and the sanctions were unjustified. Additional sanctions were placed after Pakistan acquired M11 missiles and delivery systems technology from China which violated the MTCR regime. By 1996 Pakistan’s Afghan efforts were bringing some success and the ISI backed Taliban government was established in Afghanistan. The US administration initially welcome the prospects of peace in the country but later opposed the Taliban regime based on their extreme fundamentalist views and gross violations of human rights.A new turn of events unfolded in May 1998 when the new Indian government tested several nuclear devices. The Clinton Administration put a lot of pressure on the Pakistani government to refrain from tit for tat nuclear tests.
However, Pakistan government came under intense internal pressure and detonated their nuclear devices two weeks later. Although a new nuclear deterrent had been established between India and Pakistan, another wave of international sanctions followed from the international community.This put further pressure on the already weak political economy of Pakistan. The US had a new interest in Afghanistan by mid 1998 after the terrorist attacks on US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania which killed two hundred people and were carried on by an organization belonging to Osama Bin Ladin, a former Saudi national living in Afghanistan. The US administration wanted Pakistan to use its influence on the Taliban to make them handover the culprit over to the US. However, the Taliban refused and new animosity started in the region.In early 1999, Pakistan had a spate of diplomatic discussion to improve their relations with India but by mid 1999, a limited war had erupted in Kargil between the two countries which had been covertly engineered by the Pakistani Army.
As India increased pressure and an escalating war scenario emerged, the US intervened on the request of Pakistan and the armies retreated to their pre war positions. The main casualty in the war turned out to the Pakistani Premier Nawaz Sharif who tried to oust the military commander but a military executed a coup and the military came into power for the fourth time led by General Musharraf.CONCLUSION: In the historical context of US-Pakistan relations, it is obvious that the mutual relations between the two countries are based on convergence of common interests from time to time. When the US required U2 surveillance flight facilities and an intelligence base against the Soviets (1959-1968), backdoor diplomacy with the Chinese (1970-72), covert operations against the Red Army in Afghanistan (1980-88) and recently the war against terrorism (2001 – ?? ), it has extended its best hand forward in terms of military and economic aid as well as support for unelected military dictators.On the other hand, Pakistan during this time has had modest success in growing its economy with economic aid from the US and from the World Bank and IMF. Pakistan has performed better in achieving its goal of a nuclear balance with India with its extensive missile and nuclear programs. However, time will tell how long the present cooperation between the USA and Pakistan lasts and how much can the Pakistanis get in reward for their cooperation with US war against Osama Bin Ladin and his Al-Qaida organization.
****** Lecture No: 7Dated: 5-10-2010PAK ROLE IN WAR AGAINST TERRORISM Musharraf – 9/11 and beyond – partners in the fight against terrorism: Pak-us relation between 2001-2010 • What is Terrorism? • Background history • U. S. S. R. invasion Afghanistan • After 9/11 • Effect of Post WHAT IS TERISM? There are different concept and definations: i. The use of voilance by groups a states to atimidats (to threaton someone) cause fear or viotimise someone to achive politcal goals. This is a concise defination.
General Musharraf took power at a time when the economic situation of the country was in deep trouble.The rupee was sliding, foreign reserves had been depleted and rampant corruption had messed up the infrastructure of the country. By year 2000, Pakistan after more than 53 years of independence was still struggling to find a stable political system and an economic infrastructure that would generate sustainable development and improve the quality of life for its people. From the United States perspective, Pakistan was moving closer to a “failed state” case and it’s nuclear and missile programs were a constant concern for policy makers in Washington.A failing economy could easily lead to another coup backed by the Islamists and the country could fall in fundamentalist hands along with its arsenal of nuclear weapons. With this scenario in view, the US administration more or less supported the Musharraf regime in its efforts to build a more stable economy in Pakistan. 9/11 changed the nature of US – Pakistan relations once again.
Terrorists supported by Osama Bin Ladin’s organization had executed successful attacks in New York and Washington in September 2001.The US President George Bush asked the world to make a clear choice to side with the US with the slogan “you are with us or against us”. President Musharraf’s regime, which was previously a supporter and backer of the Taliban regime since its inception, made a U-turn and sided with the US in its war against terrorism. Siding with the US, Musharraf betted that the decision would result in improving foreign aid and support from World Bank and IMF on the one hand and US support for Pakistan’s cause for Kashmir on the other.In the last two years, Pakistan has helped the US capture several hundred operatives of the Al-Qiada organization and has allowed the US to execute military operations from its land, air and sea bases. In return for its cooperation, there has been some economic revival of the Pakistani economy. On the Kashmir front, however, not much progress has been made since India has projected Pakistan as a supported of terrorism in Kashmir itself, a label vehemently denied by the Pakistanis.
****** Licture No. Dated: 8-11-2010 PAK-CHINA RELATION Pakistan and China have a common border. The memories of cultural contacts are rooted in the ancient part and can be traced down to the beginning of Islam. Trade and commercial connections existed between Muslim world and China. When Pakistan came into being on August 14, 1947, China was passing through a critical situation caused by the civil war between the Nationalists and Communists. In the long run the communist forces in China were declared a communist country.LEGITIMATE RECOGNITION: A newly born communist China had to face many problems; for example the problem of recognition as a legitimate Government and membership of UNO.
As a matter of fact Western countries and allies of Nationalist Government were not ready to extend recognition to the new communist Chinese Government. Pakistan boldly refused to stand by the western countries. Pakistan and China have enjoyed a generally close and mutually beneficial relationship over several decades.Pakistan served as a link between Beijing and Washington in 1971, as well as a bridge to the Muslim world for China during the 1980s. China’s continuing role as a major arms supplier for Pakistan began in the 1960s and included helping to build a number of arms factories in Pakistan, as well as supplying complete weapons systems. After the 1990 imposition of U. S.
sanctions on Pakistan, the Islamabad-Beijing arms relationship was further strengthened. Pakistan continues to view China as an “all-weather friend” and perhaps its most important strategic ally.MEMBERSHIP OF THE U. N. O: Pakistan strongly advocated China’s entry in the UNO despite opposition from the U. S. A.
where the resolution for China’s entry to the UNO was moved in September, 1950. Pakistan not only voted in favour of the resolution but openly criticised the attitude and policy adopted by the USA and western countries. KORIAN WAR: During China-Korea War, Pakistan showed friendly behaviour toward China. Pakistan accused Korea of aggression. Pakistan abstained from voting on the resolution which was moved to impose embargo on China.This policy of Pakistan proved fruitful in developing cordial relations between China and Pakistan. The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and China met with each other during the Afro-Asian Conference.
The meeting between the Prime Minister of China and that of Pakistan paved the ay for solid friendship. The following years witnessed growing co-operation in almost all spheres of life. For this purpose, contacts between the two countries were accelerated, various delegations were exchanged and agreements were signed.Chou En Lai said on Pakistan Independence Day in 1956 “In the years to come our good neighbourly relation will be further promoted and our cultural and economic intercourse will become more and more frequent. ” INDO-PAKISTAN WAR 1965: India attacked Pakistan in September, 1965. Pakistan was taken by surprise and fell in deep trouble to Indian attack. At this critical moment China came forward with moral and material help.
She declared India as aggressor. There attached a page of Pak-China relation, provided by Sir Ghulam Jilani. ****** Lecture No. Dated: 10-11-2010 SOME IMPORTANT TERMINOLOGIES AND CONCEPTS 1)GENEVA ACCORD: The Geneva Initiative, also known as the Geneva Accord, is a model permanent status agreement to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict based on previous official negotiations, international resolutions, the Quartet Roadmap, the Clinton Parameters, and the Arab Peace Initiative. The Geneva Initiative addresses and presents a comprehensive solution to all issues vital to ensuring the end of the conflict and the realization of the national visions of both parties.It would give Palestinians almost all of the West Bank and Gaza Strip drawing Israel’s borders close to what existed prior to the Israeli annexation of territory at the culmination of the 1967 war. 2)END OF HISTORY: The Revolutions of 1989 (also known as the Fall of Communism, the Collapse of Communism, the Revolutions of Eastern Europe and the Autumn of Nations) are the revolutions which overthrew Soviet-style communist states in Eastern-bloc European countries.
3)BAGHDAD PACTCENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, original name was Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. It was dissolved in 1979. U. S. pressure and promises of military and economic aid were key in the negotiations leading to the agreement, although the United States could not initially participate “for purely technical reasons of budgeting procedures. In 1958, the United States joined the military committee of the alliance. It is generally viewed as one of the least successful of the Cold War alliances.
The organization’s headquarters were initially located in Baghdad (Iraq) 1955–1958 and Ankara (Turkey) 1958–1979. 4)NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT: The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an intergovernmental organization of states considering themselves not aligned formally with or against any major power bloc. The movement emerged in the 1960s during the Cold War between East and West 1949–89.Although originally used by poorer states, the non-aligned position was later adopted by oil-producing nations The purpose of the organisation as stated in the Havana Declaration of 1979 is to ensure “the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries 5)EXTRADITION A formal process by which a criminal suspect held by one government is handed over to another government for trial or, if the suspect has already been tried and found guilty, to serve his or her sentence. ORExtradition is the official process whereby one nation or state surrenders a suspected or convicted criminal. Between nation states, extradition is regulated by treaties. Where extradition is compelled by laws, such as among sub-national jurisdictions, the concept may be known more generally as rendition.
6)AGRA SUMMIT: A historic summit meeting was held between Pakistan’s President Pervez Musharraf and the Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee in Agra, from July 14 to 16, 2001. The summit started amid high hopes of resolving various disputes between the two countries including the five decades old Kashmir issue.Both sides started the summit with hopefulness and in a spirit of good will; especially President Musharraf used the phrases “cautious optimism”, “flexibility” and “open mind” to describe his buoyant views for the summit. The Indian President also promised to take “bold and innovative” measures and to discuss the “core issue” between the two countries. 7)THE IRON CURTAIN SPEECH (1946): “Iron Curtain” is a term used to describe the boundary that separated the Warsaw Pact countries from the NATO countries from about 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.The Iron Curtain was both a physical and an ideological division that represented the way Europe was viewed after World War II. To the east of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the former Soviet Union.
This included part of Germany (East Germany), Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Albania (until 1960 when it aligned with China). The iron curtain took the shape of physical borders between Eastern and Western Europe, most prominently, the Berlin Wall seal by USSR. )PRESSLER AMENDMENT Adopted 1985 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 as amended. Originally banned most economic and military assistance to Pakistan unless the U. S. president certified, on an annual basis, that Pakistan did not possess a nuclear explosive device, and that the provision of U. S.
aid would significantly reduce the risk of Pakistan possessing such a device. In October 1990, President George Bush was unable to issue this certification, which triggered the Pressler amendment prohibitions.In 1995, the Brown amendment exempted most forms of economic assistance from the Pressler amendment prohibitions. 9)TRACK TO DIPLOMACY: Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making, trade, war, economics, culture, environment and human rights. International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians.In an informal or social sense, diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage or to find mutually acceptable solutions to a common challenge, one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non-confrontational, or polite manner.
The process of diplomatics, dealing with the study of old documents, also owes its name to the above, but its present meaning is completely distinct from that of diplomacy. OR Process of conducting activities with another with tact in order to bring about a good relationship.An executive who is diplomatic in dealings with clients, suppliers, and employees is careful to say the right things at the right time to avoid ill will. 1O)CRISES DIPLOMACY: This term was introduced by Dean Aitcheson, Secretary of State of U. S. in 1948. When negotiation with USSR was useless and struck in deadlock.
Then Aitcheson proposed because negotiation was no successful. We must use second instrument of foreign policy. American used economic clout to protect the free world. 11)EMBARGO: Government prohibition against the shipment of certain goods to another country.An embargo is most common during wartime, but is sometimes applied for economic reasons as well. For instance, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries placed an embargo on the shipment of oil to the West in the early 1970s to protest Israeli policies and to raise the price of petroleum. 12)EXTRATERRITORIALITY: Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.
Extraterritoriality can also be applied to physical places, such as military bases of foreign countries, or offices of the United Nations.The three most common cases recognized today internationally relate to the persons and belongings of foreign heads of state, the persons and belongings of ambassadors and certain other diplomatic agents, and ships in foreign waters. Extraterritoriality is often extended to friendly or allied militaries, particularly for the purposes of allowing that military to simply pass through one’s territory. It is distinguished from personal jurisdiction in the sense that extraterritoriality operates to the prejudice of local jurisdiction.The operation of laws upon persons existing beyond the limits of the enacting state or nation but who are still amenable to its laws. Jurisdiction exercised by a nation in other countries by treaty, or by its own ministers or consuls in foreign lands. 13)SEATO AND CENTO: i)SEATO ALLIANCE: On 8 September 1954, the United States, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, and Pakistan signed the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty in Manila.
Sometimes referred to as the Manila Pact, this agreement created the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).The Eisenhower administration and especially Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had worked to establish this loose alliance after the Geneva Agreement on Indochina ended the French war in Southeast Asia in 1954. ii)CENTO ALLIENCE: The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, original name was Middle East Treaty Organization or METO, also known as the Baghdad Pact) was adopted in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. It was dissolved in 1979. 14)NEUTRALISM: This term developed during the Cold War.It is a technical term, when a state declared own self a neutral state, then that can’t participate in any kind of defnece alliance or can’t take side in any conflict. 15)LAHORE DECLARATION: In order to normalize relations between India and Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif undertook a major initiative in February 21, 1999.
This initiative culminated in a visit by the Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee to Lahore via bus, across the Wagah border, in 1999. Nawaz Sharif met him at the Wagah border and a joint communique, known as the “Lahore Declaration”, was signed between the two leaders.The Lahore Declaration signalled a major breakthrough in overcoming the historically strained bilateral relations between the two nations in the aftermath of the nuclear tests carried out by both nations in May 1998, but would soon lose impetus with the outbreak of the Kargil War in May 1999. 16)WATERGATE SCANDAL: The Watergate scandal was a 1970s United States political scandal resulting from the break-in to the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D. C.Effects of the scandal ultimately led to the resignation of the President of the United States, Richard Nixon, on August 9, 1974, the first and only resignation of any U. S President.
It also resulted in the indictment, trial, conviction and incarceration of several Nixon administration officials. The affair began with the arrest of five men for breaking and entering into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex on June 17, 1972. The FBI connected the payments to the burglars to a slush fund used by the 1972 Committee to Re-elect the President.As evidence mounted against the president’s staff, which included former staff members testifying against them in an investigation conducted by the Senate Watergate Committee, it was revealed that President Nixon had a tape recording system in his offices and that he had recorded many conversations. Recordings from these tapes implicated the president, revealing that he had attempted to cover up the break-in. After a series of court battles, the U. S.
Supreme Court ruled that the president had to hand over the tapes; he ultimately complied.Facing near-certain impeachment in the House of Representatives and a strong possibility of a conviction in the Senate, Nixon resigned the office of the presidency on August 9, 1974. His successor, Gerald Ford, issued a pardon to President Nixon after his resignation. 17)BROWN AMENDMENT: The amendment was presented in the US Congress by Senator Hank Brown, hereafter referred to as the Brown Amendment. This amendment did not reverse the Pressler Amendment but provided some relaxation of the rules. The main features were: Assistance to Pakistan was to be provided in economic and humanitarian fields.Aid was to be given for the functioning of NGOs, narcotics control, antiterrorism, peacekeeping forces and development of technology.
Some military aid would be released to Pakistan, except the F-16s. A resolution referred to as the ‘Sense of Congress’ was passed, under which the President was allowed to sell the F-16s to a third party and Pakistan was to be reimbursed its costs. 18)INDUS WATER TREATY (1960): The Indus Waters Treaty is a water-sharing treaty between the Republic of India and Islamic Republic Of Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank (then the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development).The treaty was signed in Karachi on September 19, 1960 by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Mohammad Ayub Khan. The treaty was a result of Pakistani fear that since the source rivers of the Indus basin were in India, it could potentially create droughts and famines in Pakistan, especially at times of war. However, India did not revoke the treaty during any of three later Indo-Pakistani Wars. 19)COLD WAR: This term is used to describe the relationship between America and the Soviet Union 1945 to 1980.
Neither side ever fought the other – the consequences would be too appalling – but they did ‘fight’ for their beliefs using client states who fought for their beliefs on their behalf e. g. South Vietnam was anticommunist and was supplied by America during the war while North Vietnam was pro-Communist and fought the south (and the Americans) using weapons from communist Russia or communist China. In Afghanistan, the Americans supplied the rebel Afghans after the Soviet Union invaded in 1979 while they never physically involved themselves thus avoiding a direct clash with the Soviet Union. 20)COMMUNISM:Communism refers to the banishment of all the differences from the society, and people sharing all the things equally with equal status. There shouldn’t be any kind of exploitation or social inequality like women being dominated by men, racial discrimination and backward ideology. Communist society is supposed to provide equal status to everyone with the opportunity to use the resources equitably.
Communism also means an extensive outlook for the betterment of society. The symbol of communism is the hammer and the chisel, wherein the hammer represents the workers and the chisel represents the farmers or the peasants. 1)CAPITALISM: Capitalism refers to the era in which all the power was concentrated in the hands of business owners or traders. The workers were treated badly and exploited. The traders worked only in their interests. It was a period where the rich became richer and the poor became poorer. This led to the formation of trade unions by the workers, leading to socialism.
22)MARSHAL PLAN: This plan was given by George Martial, after Second World War the U. S. economy continued with its pace, but the Europeans had lack of dollars, to buy the American goods. President Harry S.Trueman said if Europe could not continue to take its shares of these exports, the U. S. will go through the 30’s.
Newly appointed secretary of state offered massive aid to Europe on two conditions: i) The initiative informally along terms, relations with Europe should come from European state. ii) The programme could have to be co-operative the Western Europe was given 17 billion U. S. $ for four years. Actually this aid was a plan to flight against communism. 23)SUEZ CANAL CRISES: The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, was a war fought by Britain, France, and Israel against Egypt beginning on 29 October 1956.The attack followed Egypt’s decision of 26 July 1956 to nationalize the Suez Canal, after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam, which was partly in response to Egypt recognizing the People’s Republic of China during the height of tensions between China and Taiwan.
The three allies, especially Israel, were mainly successful in attaining their immediate military objectives, but pressure from the United States and the USSR at the United Nations and elsewhere forced them to withdraw.Britain and France completely failed in their political and strategic aim of controlling the canal. Israel fulfilled some of its objectives, attaining the freedom of navigation through the Straits of Tiran and the pacification of the Egyptian-Israeli border through UNEF. 24)CUBAN MISSILE CRISES: At the beginning of September 1962, U-2 spy planes discovered that the Soviet Union was building surface-to-air missile (SAM) launch sites. There was also an increase in the number of Soviet ships arriving in Cuba which the United States government feared were carrying new supplies of weapons.President John F. Kennedy complained to the Soviet Union about these developments and warned them that the United States would not accept offensive weapons (SAMs were considered to be defensive) in Cuba.
As the Cubans now had SAM installations they were in a position to shoot down U-2 spy-planes. Kennedy was in a difficult situation. Elections were to take place for the United States Congress in two month’s time. The public opinion polls showed that his own ratings had fallen to their lowest point since he became president. ********