The content or subject matter is drawn from a wide variety of fields, including psychology, sociology, business administration, economics, industrial engineering, systems engineering, human resource management, and organizational behavior study (Nichols, 2004).
Because of this wide scope of responsibilities, no occupational psychologist can obtain a professional license unless he proves his sound knowledge and understanding of eight areas of specialization: 1) ergonomics, or the human-machine interaction. 2) design of safe and healthy work environment. 3) design of appropriate tests and exercises for personnel selection and assessment. 4) performance appraisal and career development. 5) counseling and personal development. 6) design and evaluation of training needs. 7) employee relations and motivation. and 8) organizational development and change (Graves & Lindley, 2005).
In effect, what the occupational psychologists do for people and organizations in the workplace is to conduct appropriate tests and job-related exercises to pinpoint the abilities of individuals and develop their potentials. For this activity, an organization depends on occupational psychologists for the selection process and career counseling. They are also tasked to motivate people by designing payment and reward systems and advising on health and safety promotion. They help people and organizations adapt to change through change in attitudes and behaviors with the end in view of improving service to customers. In the modern-day context of the workplace, they help design machines and computer systems that are easy to use. On and off the job, the occupational psychologist appraises performance and assist people in coping with stress. In making organizations more effective, they advise on the best type of management systems, identify the best human resource strategies, and design jobs that match people’s skills.