When the item is not present it likely leads to erectile dysfunction. This must be causing distress in the individual’s life to be diagnosed. This disorder tends to start in adolescence and is usually chronic (DSM, 2000).
This disorder involves cross dressing. Usually it is a male dressing in women’s clothing. While dressed as a woman he usually masturbates imagining himself as both partners in the sex act. This is not to be confused with a gender identity disorder. These individual prefer heterosexual relationships when they are not cross dressing. Generally the desire to cross dress diminishes with age or it may turn into gender dysphoria (2000).
Sexual Masochism involved an individual being humiliated, beaten, bound or made to suffer in some while during sexual intercourse or masturbation. This is all done to the paraphiliac either by himself or by having a partner help perform the acts. One very dangerous behavior involved in this is hypoxyphilia which is depriving them self of oxygen with can and has caused death (2000)
Sadism is when the paraphiliac derives sexual excitement form the psychological or physical suffering of a victim. Some individual with paraphilia are bothered by their sadistic fantasies which may happen during sexual activities but they do not act upon. These fantasies generally involve having complete control over their victim. At times a masochist and a sadist may join in consenting behaviors. Some can, however, perpetrate these fantasies upon others and when that happens they generally do not stop until caught (Weinstein & Rosen, 2004).
It is thought that this behavior is related to childhood experience. It may also be related to a neruopsychosociological need for heightened arousal. It may be an escape from rigidly controlled everyday roles, a punishment for sexual activity or guilt relief.