Need an research paper on tourism/aviation policy & strategy. Needs to be 2 pages. Please no plagiarism.

Need an research paper on tourism/aviation policy & strategy. Needs to be 2 pages. Please no plagiarism. Crafting approach to policy making Crafting approach to policy making has worked successfully in the Lisbon process and the European Union engagement with social services. Drawing from the theoretical approach that emphasizes on vitality of political processes and ideas in policymaking, the pivotal point of this piece bases on how social exclusion mobilizes and manipulates concepts of EU (Pakko, 2005:558). During the 2008 financial crisis, the European Union policy makers crafted strategic policies with a particular social exclusion that among other things facilitated the legitimization and enhancement of European Union involvement in social issues. As such, crafted approach to crucial policymaking succeeded as it provided ways of curbing inflation and high interest rates. Of late, the concept of crafting approach to policymaking has become lynchpin in many parts of EU due to its foundational ideas and social policy which is an essential factor towards reforming numerous national welfares in Europe (Hayden, 2006: 77). This paper intends to discuss suggestions that constructing approach to policy making is more successful than simple prescriptive approaches.

Crafting approach otherwise known as constructing, designing, or creating approach regards a problem solving process as terminative once a policy maker attains a satisfactory solution. As such, crafting approach to policymaking is an emotional or reasoning procedure that can be either rational or irrational (Torres, 2008:48). Additionally, the procedure can base on tacit assumptions or explicit assumptions thus it is more successful than simple prescriptive approaches. This is because, in designing a policy, an individual has an opportunity to weigh between the cons and pros of a certain decision he or she is about to make. However, it is advisable to note that, people make all decisions while unconscious (Pakko, 2005:568). In real world, people decide without thinking mainly because it could take too much of our time to actually sit and list all the pros and cons of every decision that we resolve to make on our daily lives.

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Designing approach is an imperative part of policymaking since its logic bases on all science related professions where ideal specialists use their acquired knowledge in given spectrum to make informed policies (Michael, 2010:57). In medical decision making for instance, medical practitioners make diagnosis then select the appropriate treatment. Several researches that employ naturalistic methods highlight that, in institutions where pressure is high, stakes are high, ambiguities are in large numbers, specialists apply crafting or intuitive policymaking rather than structural approaches (Hewlett, 2011:103). Use of designed or crafted approach to policymaking succeeds mostly as opposed to prescriptive means of approaching decision due to recognition of primed decisions (Peter, 2004:63). Designed approach sets froth indicators that help experts use their experiences to arrive at pragmatic and satisfactory course of action with immediate effect without weighing alternatives (Innes and David, 2010:201). Recently, robust decisions led to efforts where policymaking process integrates formal uncertainty, which in turn factors out controlled and structural aspects of prescriptive approach to policymaking (Stefan, Linz, and Yana, 2010:99).

In conclusion, designing or crafting approach to policy making succeeds more than prescriptive decision-making because the former involves analysis of a finite set of solutions and alternatives (Courtney, 2002:74). As a result, it becomes possible and easy to evaluate criteria whereby these criteria may be in form of cost or benefit in nature (Miller, 2011:62). When considering the criteria simultaneously, constructing approach to policymaking sets forth a platform for ranking the available alternatives starting the most attractive going downwards to the least important with reference to decision makers. With designation approach to policy making, policy makers make imperative and successful decisions since their approach is rationally justifiable and the method recognizes uncertainties (Meshing, 2004:102). As elaborated, there are paramount factors that aid in success when employing crafting approach to policy making as opposed to prescriptive measures whose methods are rigid and unreliable.

Bibliography

Courtney, H., 2002. 20/20 Foresight: Crafting Strategy in an Uncertain World. Available from: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/2713.html [Accessed on 6 June 2012]

Hayden, F. 2006. Policymaking for a Good Society: The Social Fabric Matrix Approach to Policy Analysis And Program Evaluation. Verlag AG: Birkhäuser.

Hewlett, M. 2011. Designing Public Policies: Principles and Instruments. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Innes, J and David, B. 2010. Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Michael, K. 2010. Handbook of Reading Research, Volume 4. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Miller, K., 2011. Organizational Communication: Approaches and Processes. New York: Cengage learning.

Mishina, T. 2004. Crafting Strategy Through a Purpose-Oriented Approach. Available from: http://www.pomsmeetings.org/ConfProceedings/002/POMS_CD/Browse%20This%20CD/PAPERS/002-0440.pdf [Accessed on 6 June 2012]

Pakko, M. 2005. “On the Information Content of Asymmetric. Economic Inquiry 43 (3): 558–69.

FOMC Policy Statements: Evidence from a Taylor-Rule Perspective.”

Peter, D. 2004. Crafting Customer Value: The Art and Science. Purdue: Purdue University Press.

Stefan, A., Linz, J. And Yadav, Y. 2010. Crafting State-Nations: India and Other Multinational Democracies. Baltimore: JHU Press.

Torres, A. 2008. Policy Tools in Action: Crafting the School Readiness Agenda in Evergreen. Manila: ProQuest.

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