Need an research paper on applied pharmacology module 1 workbook learning activity dropbox. Needs to be 2 pages. Please no plagiarism.

Need an research paper on applied pharmacology module 1 workbook learning activity dropbox. Needs to be 2 pages. Please no plagiarism. Topic: &nbsp.Applied Pharmacology Section Introductory Concepts The availability of drugs in Australia using a flow diagram Section 2: National Medicines Policy (NMP) and Quality Use of Medicine (QUM)

Developing and implementing a national drug policy

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As a result of the high expensive medicinal products, patients, belonging to the lower class are not able to access the medical services. The World Health Organization (WHO) has started national drug policy (NDP) in all the countries. “The general objectives of a national drug policy are to ensure: Access, Quality and Rational use of drugs by the paramedics and consumers” (How to Develop and Implement a National Drugs Policy. 2003). The policy makers organize the process, recognize those matters which require more attention and turn their proposals into accomplishment towards the advantage of the country. They further will also indicate a specific timeframe for the implementation of the policies along with a detailed plan for the expenditure (How to Develop and Implement a National Drugs Policy, 2003).

Key components of a national drug policy

The key components include” selection of essential drugs, Affordability, Drug financing, Supply systems, Regulation and quality assurance, Rational use, Research, Human resources, Monitoring and evaluation” (How to Develop and Implement a National Drags Policy, 1988).

Responsibilities of the key partners in achieving QUM

The key partners are those who provide health services and help the patients to learn about various health issues (The National Strategy for Quality Use of Medicines 2002).

Their responsibilities include:

1) Act as a partner to attain quality use of medicines

2) Recognize where the problem occurs and suggest the use of medicine to the public.

3) Ascertain health issues and begin intervention programs.

4) Identify the risk and benefits in using various medicines (The National Strategy for Quality Use of Medicines 2002).

Discuss how you will support the Quality Use of Medicines

As a paramedic, my estimation is that the role played by national strategy in formulating the greatest possible use of medicines to develop the health results of all Australians is very remarkable (About Quality Use of Medicines, 2008). This has also provided an opportunity for the paramedic like me to expand a consistent approach to prescribe medicines that supports quality use of medicines, safe practice, and effectiveness of healthcare services.&nbsp.

Section 3: Drug information resources for Australian health care professionals

1) http://www.medicinenet.com/diazepam-oral/article.htm

2) http://www.drugs.com/valium.html

3) http://www.medindia.net/doctors/drug_information/diazepam.htm

Reasons for including each resource:

1) This is a very useful site for paramedic who practices in the beginning stages. It provides adequate information about the uses and precautions of taking Diazepam.

2) This site provides all details and guidelines to patients before and after taking any particular medicine.

3) This is a helpful site for both the paramedics as well as patients by providing a description of the trade name and other elements of drug.

Limitations of each of these drug information resources:

1) This site does not provide any guidelines for prescribing drugs.

2) This site explains in detail about the drugs, which the patients would find highly beneficial.

Section 4: Over-The-Counter & Complementary and Alternative Medicines

Search the literature for Hawthorn Leaf

Hawthorn is a heart herb belonging to the rose family. It is white to brownish in color and united with its extremely rose-like, lobed leaves, and brown wooded stems. The herb also works well with other tonic herbs and, therefore, fortifies its effect on the patient’s body. The leaves, berries and flowers of Hawthorn are used by herbal practitioners in UK in combination with prescribed drugs to treat hypertension (Herbs and Dietary Supplement in the Pretension and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease, 1954).

List the conditions for which the herb is used

Congestive Heart Failure

Heart Palpitations

Poor Blood Circulation

Hypertension (Lekshmi, 2012).

Precautions or contraindications concerning the use of the herb in any particular patient group

Hawthorn is insecure during pregnancy, as it may cause uterine action.

It can also cause gastrointestinal problems, nausea, rashes on hands, fatigue and sweating.

It also results in “palpitations, headache, dizziness, sleeplessness, agitation, and circulatory disturbances” (Hawthorne Extract, 2006).

Clinical evidence from 2 peer reviewed journal articles of either the effectiveness of the herb, or lack of effectiveness of the herb, for the treatment of condition listed above.

“Hawthorn (Crataegus) may play a role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and in particular, congestive heart failure” (Research Update of Hawthorn Fruit Extras Hawthorn Leaves Extras, n.d). Evidence gathered show that hawthorn may lead to anti ischemia or reperfusion-injury, hypolipidemic, hypotensive and anti-arrhythmic effects.

“Clinical trials have confirmed that hawthorn leaf and flower extracts are beneficial for people with stage II (early-stage)&nbsp.congestive heart failure.” (Hawthorn, 1999). People with congestive heart failure showed recovery with greater ability to exercise devoid of breath and exhaustion shortness.

Reference List

About Quality Use of Medicines 2008, For a Medicine wise Australia, Viewed 11 July 2012, http://www.nps.org.au/about_us/what_we_do/about_quality_use_of_medicines

How to Develop and Implement a National Drugs Policy 2003, Who Policy Perspectives on Medicines, Viewed 11 July 2012, http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/s4869e/s4869e.pdf

Hawthorne Extract 2006, Solar Technologies. Viewed 11 July 2012, http://www.solaltech.com/new/shop/index.php?act=viewProd&productId=5187

Hawthorn 1999, E Vitamins. Viewed 11 July 2012, http://www.evitamins.com/encyclopedia/assets/nutritional-supplement/hawthorn/how-it-works

Herbs and Dietary Supplement in the Pretension and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease 1954, Neogenis.com. Viewed 11 July 2012, http://www.neogenis.com/wp-content/uploads/Hawthorn-Crataegus-research-NO-3-10.pdf

How to Develop and Implement a National Drags Policy 1988, World Health Organization. Viewed 11 July 2012, http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/s2283e/s2283e.pdf

How to Develop and Implement a National Drugs Policy 2003, Who Policy Perspectives on Medicines. Viewed 11 July 2012, http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/policyperspectives/PPM_No6-6pg-en.pdf

Lekshmi, T. et al. 2012, Crataegus Oxyacantha Linn. Commonly Known as Harm thorn- A Scientific Review. Sphinxsai.com. Viewed 11 July 2012, http://www.sphinxsai.com/2012/pharm/PHARM/PT=64%28458-465%29JM12.pdf

Research Update of Hawthorn Fruit Extras Hawthorn Leaves Extras, (n.d). MD Idea Exporting Division. Viewed 11 July 2012, http://www.mdidea.com/products/herbextract/hawthorn/research.html

The National Strategy for Quality Use of Medicines 2002, Commonwealth of Australia, Viewed 11 July 2012, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/CA777524C860DFF2CA256F1800468B61/$File/natstrateng.

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