This essay discusses the motivation process by describing different theories and concepts that analyze the pros and cons of the different motivational theories.
One model that describes the motivational process is called Lock’s model of goal setting. The model was developed by Edwin Locke and Gary Latham in 1990 (Skinner). A goal is an action that regulates behavior and guides it in specific path towards accomplishing the desired outcome within a specified period of time. The goal setting theory may be used in organization to create expectations of what is expected of the employees of a company as well as individual to reach their personal desires.
It has been used as a scientific method in certain patients such as drug addicts to determine cognitive behavioral treatments (Skinner). Goal theory provides certain advantages to its users and other constraints which prohibit accomplished the desired results for the use of the technique.
The theory needs to have goals set that are challenging and difficult to reach and are not ambiguous so that the specific end state that is desired is clearly defined for the person or employees working to accomplish the goal. The performance of an organization tends to be lower if a goal can be easily reached. People individual that set easy to reach personal goal is not challenging themselves and their true potential is been hidden to them by their complacency.
The theory proposes that goals are the immediate regulators of behavior, thus setting difficult goals lead to higher levels of performance (Erez). This theory has constraints which may limit the effectives of the method. There needs to be goal commitment for it to work. If a person is not truly committed towards achieving a goal motivation will be enhanced in any way since a person does not real care about a achieving the goal.
A person has to apply self-efficacy in order to find the best way to efficiently accomplish the goal without affecting other aspect of a person’s life. Another thing that must occur for the theory to work is that the person setting or trying to accomplish the goal must receive feedback from other people about their progress in order for the individuals to keep themselves motivated towards continuing the battle to accomplish the goal.
A second theory of Motivation is Adam’s Equity Theory of motivation developed by John Stacey Adam in 1963. The theory is touches the motivation aspects of work experiences.
Equity theory extends beyond the individual self to incorporate other’s people’s situation which includes co-workers and friends to form a comparative view of awareness and equity (Chapman). Equity in itself relates to a sense of fairness in the actions endeavor realize. The motivation a person has to accomplish a set goal is evaluated internally by the person comparing the obligation and job goals he is suppose to achieve with what others are expected to perform.
A person working as a salesperson for a distribution company that is given a quota of 10 sales per week will accept and work towards accomplishing this benchmark as long as other salesperson are expected to perform the same and as long as this quota is within the boundaries of the industry standards.