Socialism played a pivotal role in the growth of the ancient Egyptian civilization. Karl Wittfogel, author of “Oriental Despotism” inferred that socialism laid the foundation for all primitive civilizations (Karenga 99). Socialism is an ideology, which advocates for public ownership in favor of privatization of a country’s economy. Ancient Egyptian civilization flourished under a centralized system of government charged with the responsibility of mobilizing the country’s resources. For example, the government oversaw the erection of permanent structures such as the pyramids of Giza and the Great Sphinx. In addition, Egypt’s strategic geographic location endorsed agriculture within the region, which translated into a reliable and stable source of food for its population. Ancient Egyptians capitalized on the flooded Nile River, which supplied water to sustain the irrigation of arable plains in the region. Under the government’s supervision, the harvest was stored and controlled rations distributed to the population. Moreover, surplus harvest became a trade commodity boosting trade within the region. Growth was not limited to the economic sector only. The use of written words and symbols became a tool for the preservation of Egyptian culture whereby, scholars created permanent records of significant events. These served as reference points for future generations. Finally, the pharaohs (for example, Tuthmosis 1 and his grandson Tuthmosis III) secured the region’s borders by forming strategic alliances with their neighbors such as Assyria and Canaan (Hine et al 35).
Historians remain divided regarding possible reasons, which contributed to sudden decline of the ancient Egyptian civilization. However, they all concur that the civilization collapsed during the end of the eighth dynasty after the long reign of Pepy II.