literature paper

Daoism and confucianism in writing, 2)confucianism in cultural studies, 3) traditional china,(4) yingying and decima. His writings deal primarily with individual morality and ethics, and the proper exercise of political power by the rulers.

Confucianism is a philosophy of living rather than a religion and may guide ones life while one practices other religions without contradiction. Confucius was a Chinese scholar and statesman who lived over 2000 years ago. He established an ethical and moral system that governs all relationships.

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Confucianism views the family as the basic unit of society. Certain reciprocal relationships and responsibilities must be observed to preserve harmony. The relationships exist between ruler and subjects, husband and wife, father and son, elder brother and younger brother, and friends. A specific hierarchy is observed that places highest importance on rank and age in all interactions. Saving face (not being publicly embarrassed) and not causing shame to another are important. Since the family is the core unit, all actions of an individual reflect on the family and on all members of the family. Life is most valued when the virtues of kindness, righteousness, propriety, intelligence, and faithfulness are observed.

Hence the Chinese practice three religions (more appropriately referred to as belief systems incorporating religion, and philosophy of life) simultaneously. It is like a good swimmer who knows that there are three elements related to winning a competition: his mental preparation, his physical readiness, and a sense of affinity with the water that surrounds him.

2. If the sons of emperors and princes are without quality they should be reduced to the ranks of the common people. If the common people have quality, they should be elevated to the ranks of the rulers.

4. (Superior men: Men of noble character, not noble birth.) Anyone can be a superior man. It is only necessary to decide to be one. (Demanded honesty, rigorous self-control and virtue of his students).

5. A Superior man thinks of what is right.

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