LifeSpan and Development

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He categorized them into pre-conventional, conventional, and post conventional.

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Selman on the other hand, focused on Role Taking, which is the ability to adopt the perspective of someone else and thinking about things in another person’s point of view. Like Piaget, he believed that the ability to take another person’s idea is limited and that children go through four stages of thinking about others.

Brofenbrenner views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment, from the immediate settings to the laws customs and cultural norms (Nichols et. al., 2000). The environment is rarely static. it is dynamic and therefore affects people in varying ways.

Vygotsky views social interaction as very important in the process of children acquiring ways of thinking and behaving that makes up a people’s culture therefore cognitive development is a socially meditated process, which varies from culture to culture (Broderick & Blewitt, 2014).

These two theorists have affected American child education where different states have different levels of competencies essential for success depending on all the different cultures. Furthermore, American children live in an industrialized society. Their teachers, therefore, teach them how to read, drive cars and use computers, which may not be the case in different environments.

Erikson did accept Freud’s basic psychosexual framework but expanded the scope at each developmental stage. His stages are referred to as psychosocial stages since his emphasis was on the interaction of the inner instincts and outer cultural and social demands unlike Freud who based development only as caused by inner instincts (Broderick & Blewitt, 2014).

Freud viewed development as only occurring in childhood. 

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