Self-Efficacy Theory Coach Johnson must conduct an assessment to determine the areas that need to be improved and devise an intervention tailored to the needs of the athlete. The self-efficacy theory can be utilized to address the concerns of this particular athlete. Bandura proposed the self efficacy theory which is based on the assumption that individuals possess self-beliefs that allow them to gain control over their feelings, thoughts and actions (Clark, 2008, p. 80). Coach Johnson must focus on four factors which influence development of the athlete’s self-efficacy, namely, mastery experience, verbal persuasion, modelling, and physiological state (Chesnay & Anderson, 2011, p. 173).
Coach Johnson must encourage the athlete to appraise previous performances. He must highlight the high batting average obtained by the athlete in the previous years in order for the athlete to perceive such experiences as successes. Feltz, Short, and Sullivan (2008) stressed that self-monitoring of successes increases the appraisal of mastery experience as well as enhance self-efficacy (p. 7). Coach Johnson must verbally persuade the athlete that he is capable of mastering or achieving the task. Hayden (2009) stressed that the verbal support of others greatly enhances the person’s confidence in herself or himself (p. 9). Coach Johnson must tell this athlete that he is better than the opponents and they are no match for his abilities. He can also allow this athlete to observe demonstrations of a proficient model. Modelling provides instructional information in correctly performing a task (Feltz, Short, & Sullivan, 2008, p. 8). It allows the athlete to perceive that he can undertake what a particular proficient model accomplished.
Lastly, coach Johnson must explain to the athlete that the autonomic arousal experienced before the game is the manifestation of being “psyched up” or being ready for performance instead of fear. Hayden (2009) stressed that emotional and physical states which occur when someone contemplates on performing something offer clues into the likelihood of failure or success (p. 9)
Chesnay, M., and Anderson, B. (2011). Caring for the Vulnerable. USA: Jones & Bartlett
Clark, C. C. (2008). Creative nursing leadership and management. USA: Jones &
Feltz, D. L., Short, S., and Sullivan, P. (2008). Self-efficacy in sport. USA: Human
Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. USA: Jones & Bartlett