Hi, need to submit a 1500 words paper on the topic Goffman and Social Interaction. By definition, performance is “the activity of an individual which occurs during a period marked by his continuous presence before a particular set of observers and which has some influence on the observers” (Goffman, 1983, 22).
The interaction order by Goffman involves the investigation of face-to-face interaction, especially amongst strangers. The supplementary tasks involved the application of theatrical and game metaphors to discover deception in the social world and as an assessment of the role of reflexivity in the social investigation, especially as seen by the “framing” of social life. Moreover, Goffman made an important contribution to the related fields of sociology of mental illness and the sociology of stigma (Blumer, 1985, 305)
Goffman’s main objective was to ascertain the study of face-to-face communication as a substantive apprehension in its own right. This flew in the face of both main theorists, for instance, Parsons, who while respecting Goffman’s assessment, however, wanted to absorb this and other fields into a larger theory and of politically thinking sociologist of all persuasions who evaluated Goffman’s assessment to be a trifling as those of his rational predecessor, George Simmel. The interaction order is a theoretical map to every occasion of face-to-face relations. The map is thus supposed to envelop behavior in, among other places “restaurants, elevators, stadiums, and dinner parties”. Therefore, all face-to-face interactions need the “co-presence” of participants meaning that people must sense that others are close enough to them to be noticed at whatever they are doing. Further, Goffman differentiated the three types of co-presence: “the gathering, the situation, and the social occasion” (Charon, 1998, 23). According to Goffman, a gathering means coming together of two or more people and a situation occurs when there is common monitoring while a social occasion is enclosed by space and time and is likely to engage props or special equipment. Therefore, a social occasion, for instance, a birthday party becomes the basis against gatherings and situations that can occur. For each of these forms of co-presence, there are differentiating patterns of communication traffic order, which Goffman defined as situational properties.
Focused interactions take place when people “extend one another a special communication license, and maintain a special form of mutual activity” (Rawls, 1987, 136). This incorporates interactions between friends, acquaintances, and under very special occasions the unacquainted. Unfocused interaction, on the other hand, takes place mainly in urban settings. .