Frith et al. are determined to investigate how women, from different cultural backgrounds, are depicted in the advertisements. The authors argue that portrayal of women, in advertisements, has strongly been emphasized by studies, in Europe and the U.S., which does not provide a full description of how women are depicted in magazines across different cultures. The authors established that demure dress was common across different cultures, and Western models were often depicted in seductive dresses than Asian women. Additionally, Western women are commonly used to advertise clothes while Asian women frequently advertise skin and hair beauty products. This is because Islam, which is the dominant religion in Asia, bars women from exposing their bodies.
Kang, in this article, focuses on determining the gender behavior patterns, which are commonly portrayed in magazine advertisements between 1979 and 1991. The author argues that magazine advertisements since 1990’s show more stereotyping of women than those of 1979. In reviewing Goffman’s gender analysis, he established that the image of women, in 1991 magazine advertisements, did not significantly change from the image of women, in 1979 magazine advertisements. However, he found out that distribution of stereotypical portrayal of women did change. This is because the cultural norms, in the early 1990’s, which barred women from exposing much of their body parts became ineffective as fashion changed. This gave women a chance to pose for photos in dresses that reveal much of their body part.
Malkin et al. examine the gendered messages that are related to bodily appearance. The authors show that the 19th Century magazines categorized magazine covers in accordance to gender of the reader and cover pages were reviewed using guidelines designed to analyze text and visual images.