Human beings dwelt in a vastly dispersed small population and groups over a period of four million years living in small groups of people had reduced the affect of infections pathogens or diseases to minimum. The people yester-years and their ancestors had attacks of both kind of diseases such as infections pathogens (bacteria, viruses & parasites) and other one caused due to ageing and degeneration of human bodies.
New diseases had emerged owing to change in physical set up and behavioral characteristics of human beings due to bacteria or virus. After the agricultural revolutions about 10,000 yeas ago, people had migrated from one place to the other in larger groups, which resulted in the first epidemiological transition. In this process of migration of human beings caused the increase of infections and nutritional diseases.
The measures taken to improve the public health system by supply-improved nutrition’s food items and medicine, some people in the developed nations had undergone a second epidemiological transition. In this transition period, there was an element of deceivers in infections diseases whereas degenerating conditions were prevailed in increase of non-infections diseases and chronic diseases.
At present, with more use of antibiotics, the people are facing a third epidemiological transition which is nothing best a new birth of infections diseases, pathogens which have antibiotic-resistance. These pathogens potential of being transmitted globally in a large scale.
In a Paleolithic period human beings dwelt in small, and sparsely settled groups. The size of the population and density was low during Paleolithic period. The population size had been balanced as the births and deaths rates in small.
A dramatic change of increase in size of the population and density occurred after Neolithic revolution. Neolithic economy had developed and generated large supply of food, which led to, a better-nourished and healthier people with a reduced rate of deaths.
Bwa Mawego is a rural village in the common wealth of Dominica. From this rural village of Dominica, Women had more rather than men Decision of migration depends on various elements inclusive relatives may play an important role for migration in developing countries. There were associations of gender kinship with reproduction in rural Dominica.
As groups of kinship becomes larger and competition from locals increase leads to lessen the benefits to kinship. In Bwa Mawego, the reproductive success increased to an optimal six of the group where it starts to decline. Men’s migration was influenced by access to matrilineal inherited properties for commercial and agriculture. For this reason, the young adults delayed their reproduction till they have acquired adequate resources for their children in Bwa Mawego.
The youth complain that they would go for migration as a few jobs and educational facilities were available in Dominica. Further, to add, people in Bwa Mawego were willing for migration, as the young women had not prepared to become life partners to jobless youth. The men were ready to get married only after sound financial position. Migration is one of the means for improvement of reproduction chances.
Bwa Mawego is one of the least developed rural villages in Dominica. She is an island situated at the dead end of narrow, mountainous road. There are about 700 residents. The source of income fro many families is cash crops.
The economic activities are very limited to commercial agricultural and fishing. The average of annual income of family in Bwa Mawego is about $5,000, which may be one of the reasons for migration of the villagers to earn and become economically strong and financially sound. Average 30% of villagers have attended high school during the period from 1953 and 1986, as facilities for education in this village are limited. In educational institutions, the attendance of girls was more than boys, particularly in high schools.
Males work in agricultural and constructions projects collectively whereas women take childcare and preparing chare. In Bwa Mawego, the relationship is more important than family household. The relationship amongst families depend largely structure of respective families. The paternal relatives bestow more care and assistance towards children of a woman rather than husbands family. In Bwa Mawego, land rights of a family are transferable to over generations to any descendants. The children of village founders, had rights to cultivate part of their agriculture land on account of village founders death.
Robert J. Quinlan. Kinship, Gender & Migration from a Rural Caribbean.
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