This layer is located above the basal layer (James et al., 2005). It is characterised by ‘pushed up’ basal layers that squamous cells, or keratinocytes which produce keratin, a tough protective protein (Marks & Jeffery, 2006). The layer also contains Langhern cells which attach themselves to antigens invading damaged skin (Proksch, Brandner, &Jensen, 2008).

These are two characteristic layers that are located above the Squamous layer. They are made up of bigger and flatter keratinocytes that contain keratohylain granules used to bind keratin filaments together (Marks et al., 2006).

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This is the outermost layer of the dermis comprising 10-30 thin layers of continually shedding and dead keratinocytes (Ovaere, Lippens, Vandenabeele, Declercq, 2009). Its cells are clamped and tightened together to form a ‘horny’ like lay

In conclusion, the human skin maintains a natural look through the continuous renewal of the epidermal cells. Through its various layers and cells, the epidermis also serves as an important component within the skin structure that helps in protecting the body against oxidant stress, ultraviolet rays, chemical compounds and microbial pathogens.

Ovaere P, Lippens S, Vandenabeele P, Declercq W. (2009). “The emerging roles of serine protease cascades in the epidermis”.

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