Religion Everyone has some viewpoints about the creator of nature, fortune and destiny. Differing opinions about spirituality covering symbols, conviction and practices lead a person to behave in a certain way which represents the religion of a person. All the religions have their own concepts but they cannot avoid certain specific questions whose answers make the basis of all the religions.
The concept of God in Buddhism refers to believe neither God nor gods. Buddhists do not believe in supremacy of a single supreme being. They believe in their mind which helps them for mind, ethical conducts, inner purity, and mental development etc. They believe in eight fold path which describes the way which ends up all sufferings. This explains right execution of view, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration (Smith).
In Jainism they also don’t believe in supremacy of God. They believe in the series of births and death where soul rejects the power of sin and achieve liberation. Karma shifts these souls to the matter rotating the series of lives and deaths. Nine Tattvas or principles are vital to be followed in Jainism which includes Jiva, Ajiva, Asrava, Bandh, Punya, Papa, Samvara, Nirjara, and Moksha. All these nine principles explain the soul, nonliving substance, cause of influx of karma, bandage of karma, virtue, sin, arresting of influx of karma, its accumulated exhaustion, and total liberation of karma (Smith).
Sikh’s thought about God are that contemplation of a man towards universe makes him feel propelled towards a supreme power. The creator does not put up with his creation but saturates through it. They have an anthropomorphic concept that humanity and God should dually be familiarized to a man. Also the known fact regarding Sikhs is that creation of God is nothing but his own transformation. These transformations are not eternal like Him but ephemeral (Smith).
Hinduism considers God as a supreme being and there is also the personal God’s concept which is an individual practice. This individual practice can be an outcome of love or fear. God is further than any shape, form or color like nirguna-the attribute less god. Another God with form that picks out human pickups is known are saguna-the god having good attributes. Their belief considers nothing as an evil part against the God (Smith).
The nature of man and universe is explained in Sikhism by their guru that the love distribution let the God create enormous expanse. Further explanation says that God wanted to spread out his adore to the humans and this made him create the universe from within himself. The nature of universe is based on three tiers i.e. maya – the power of fiend or god to change, prapanca – plurality of the world as empty, and avidya – the power of ignorance (Smith).
Jainism considers universe as a three-tier connection. It has lower, middle and upper worlds. Jainism also deduces the universe as eternal and unbreakable. The origin of the universe is eternal. The upper world is called as siddhasila which is urbanized by pure and free souls living in peace. The middle layer is cause to undergo the karma laws. The lower world is dwelled by people having atrocities in return of their sins. When these souls would be liberated after their punishments will get over. Jiva and ajiva are two components which are eternal, unbreakable, mutually co existing. Ajiva is a matter having qualities and atoms. Ajiva is physical body and Jiva is a soul (Smith).
The Buddhist universe comprises of thirty one planes. All the human beings and the other beings live on one or the other planes among the thirty-one of them. These planes are of immaterial brahma realm, fine material brahma realm and sensuous realm. Hindus have a concept of cyclic nature of the universe and nothing outside it. Framework of cycles let the cosmos follow one cycle within it in the perpetual wheel of time. This cycle experiences the making and breaking of universe and soul also experience its own cycle of rebirths. The reincarnation of individual souls is repetitively done in cycle (Smith).
After death all the beings will be reborn in any of the realms under those thirty one planes in Buddhism. Hinduism also supports reincarnation after death. Jainism explains that liberation of souls of living beings is done after overtiredness and exhaustion of all karmas. When the soul gets liberated it regains all the characteristics of ecstasy, authority, comprehension and visualization. After that the souls goes up to the top and stays there forever in an ecstatic subsistence and never come back to the cycles of facing births and deaths. This state of soul is known as nirvana (Smith).
Smith, H. The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions . HarperOne, 1991.