Describe the differences and similarities between a goal and an objective.

Objectives and goals are critical pieces to instructional design.  The learning outcomes that students should acquire by the end of instruction are goals, and they define the objectives of a course as well as set the parameters to keep instruction on track (Gagne, Wager, Golas & Keller, 2005).  Objectives indicate specific learning outcomes and provide the guidelines for assessment while goals give the direction and reflect the desired outcome (Gagne et. al., 2005).  It is important to note that objectives are measurable and achievable in a specific time frame as they tell what a student should be able to do by the end of a course or lesson (Steere, 2002).  Goals should be developed from what is needed for a lesson or program (Florida School Leaders, n. d.).  Researchers have found that mastery goals tend to be more productive than performance goals, as mastery goals focus on the acquisition of knowledge and skills (Lei, 2010). 

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I am going to teach a lesson about the risks that were taken to improve the lives of African Americans during and after the Civil War and how those risks led to the freedom of many slaves and the final abolition of slavery.

A.  List three of the five learned capabilities: intellectual skills, verbal information, and cognitive strategies

B.  For each of the three, list two examples of performance you might reasonably expect from your students.

An example of intellectual skills is as follows: students are given their text along with a guiding question which is related to essential question: How did people risk their lives to help slaves avoid capture by the law?   While reading the text students will code their text using the following codes:• L – Information about the laws • R- Information about risks • U- Facts About the Underground Railroad. Teacher will model and students will code the rest of the text on their own. This is an example of intellectual skills because it is categorizing/coding the information from their reading.

A second example of intellectual skills is when students are given a second text and complete directed note-taking based on the guiding question: How did both Harriet Tubman and Harriet Beecher Stowe help fight against slavery in the United States?  They will put their notes into two of four categories which are: Harriet Beecher Stowe or Harriet Tubman and was the action legal Y/N, or was the action risky Y/N.  Intellectual skills deal with the basics of reading and it allows students to take their prior knowledge and apply it the new knowledge that they have acquired in a lesson (Gagne et al., 2005).

An example of cognitive strategies for this lesson will be when the students watch a TeacherTube video on the Underground Railroad.  This is a cognitive strategy because it gives students supportive information such as images which helps them mentally picture what the Underground Railroad actually was and what it looked like during that time period.

A second example of cognitive strategies is when the students reflect on all that they have learned.  At the beginning of the lesson they had to complete a hook question : Is freedom worth sacrificing one’s personal safety? At the end of the lesson they will reflect on how their answers may have changed after they have completed the readings and video.  They will write a reflection about how their thinking has changed since the beginning of the lesson.  The final piece of the lesson is to reflect on their opinion of the following question: are there times when breaking the law is necessary for change to occur?  The strategies of reflection and self-regulation are metacognitive and a part of the cognitive strategies (Gagne et al., 2005).

Verbal information is the third learned capability which is used when students share text markings with a small group. We will have a class discussion in response to the guiding question: How did people risk their lives to help slaves avoid capture by the law? After the first reading, students discuss information they recall so they can answer the guiding question.  The students are sharing their knowledge verbally with their classmates.

Another example of verbal information is when students generate questions based on the two texts they have read and the video they watched.  The students will share the questions they generated with the whole class and discuss which questions they have in common.  They will also discuss which questions are most significant to their learning in this lesson.  They will  record common and relevant questions to encourage and extend the discussion.  These two examples meet the criteria for verbal information because it is the kind of knowledge that we can state, and it is declarative knowledge (Gagne et al., 2005).

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