Staphylococcus aureus is a species name with the Kingdom being bacteria. The bacterial are Firmicutes, while the class is Cocci. The order of these bacteria is Bacillales, while the family is Staphylococcaceae. The genus and the species can be derived from its scientific name, with the genus being Staphylococcus. Its scientific name is Staphylococcus aureus, while in other scientific works, it has also been referred to as Micrococcus aureus, Micrococcus pyogenes, Staphlococcus pyogenes citrus, and Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus (Freeman, 2005).
The bacterium S. aureus, commonly referred to as Staph, was first discovered in the 1980s. During this time, S. aureus was commonly associated with infections that led to painful skin and/ or conditions related to the soft tissues. These conditions included boils, impetigo, and a syndrome known as scalded- skin. S. aureus, in its serious form, can develop to form bacterial pneumonia and bloodstream bacteria. Both of these two are fatal in nature. Since the 1940s, S. aureus infections are treated by using antibiotics such as penicillin and its products. Misusing and overusing this penicillin and its products are the major reasons why the bacterium has developed resistance over the years, forcing the innovation of more powerful antibiotics like methicillin (NIH, 2008).
Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that can be referred to as gram-positive. This means that its cell wall has a very thick layer made of peptidoglycan. These bacteria have no flagella and form clusters of spherical colonies that are in two planes. Its secretions include adhesions, exoenzymes, capsular polysaccharides, and endotoxins. The main responsibility that is associated with the capsule is the increased virulence of the mucoid strain.