Create a 20 pages page paper that discusses framing construction techniques. The frames are also reinforced by the use of diagonal braces as well as with the use of rigid panels. Framing construction allows the builders to cover up large areas at minimal expense while also achieving a number of different architectural styles. The construction industry has employed a number of standards in order to ensure that materials, dimensions and construction techniques are standardised. 2. Concrete Frame Construction 2.1. Typical Design and Construction Process Concrete frames are also known better as reinforced concrete frames and are composed of vertical elements known as columns and horizontal elements known as beams. These elements are connected together using rigid joints. The structures are often cast using monolithic methods which ensure that the structure acts in unison. These frames are known to be resistant to both gravitational loading as well as lateral loading such as through bending within both beams and columns. Reinforced concrete frames are constructed in a number of different ways. The major ones are: Non-ductile reinforced concrete frames with or without infill walls. Non-ductile reinforced concrete frames with reinforced infill walls. Ductile reinforced concrete frames with or without infill walls. 2.2. Material Properties Concrete displays a high compressive strength but relatively lower tensile strength. In order to augment concrete’s tensile strength it is reinforced with other materials such as steel bars because such materials have better tensile properties. Moreover concrete displays nearly constant elasticity at low levels of stress while the elasticity tends to decrease as stress levels are increased as matrix cracking begins to form. The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is also low and concrete tends to shrink as it ages. The phenomenon of shrinkage and tension ensure that nearly all concrete structures develop cracks to some extent. Creep is also observable in concrete that is subjected to continuous long term loading. (Kosmatka & Panarese, 1988) 2.3. Advantages and Disadvantages Concrete frames provide an easy method of creating high rise structures that are able to respond to both gravitational and lateral loading with ease. Moreover concrete frames are rigid enough to resist earthquakes and other similar calamities with ease. The recent rise in the costs of reinforcement and steel prices has driven the costs of concrete frames up but on comparison to steel frames, the price of concrete frames and steel frames is close enough. Concrete frames cost marginally lower than steel frame construction for high rise buildings that need to bear massive loads. However the cost of timber frames is lower but timber frames cannot accommodate such massive loading. The foundation costs for concrete frames is significant but the use of post tensioned slabs helps to reduce these costs as these slabs are lighter. Moreover cladding costs represent a large area for spending so cladding area has to be minimised.