Compose a 750 words assignment on a leadership/motivation is provided below. the includes important leadership issues including, but not limited to, mot. Needs to be plagiarism free! A Leadership/Motivation Case Introduction Leadership and motivation are critical factors to ascertain long-term sustainability and success of an organization. It is apparently observed that a motivated individual who is directed by an able leadership tends to perform in a superior manner as compared to an individual who lacks proper guidance through leadership. Summarized Theories of Motivation and its Implications to the Case Theory X and Theory Y of Motivation The theory X and Y was proposed by Douglas McGregor to explain basic human traits. According to the theory, two types of human behavior can be identified. Contextually, the theory X assumed that an average individual has an innate dislike of work and he/she often tends to avoid it whenever they can and is willing to be directed by other people. Moreover, theory X stresses upon the aspect that such individuals need to be threatened and controlled in order to get the job completed. On the other hand, theory Y assumed that certain individuals consider their efforts towards work as natural as play. The theory argued that control and punishment are not the ways to make people work. Furthermore, the theory advocated that job satisfaction is a crucial factor in order to achieve an individual’s commitment towards the organization (Ndlovu, 2009). In the provided case scenario, it can be viewed that Alex who works for Dan does not like working with him and he is not satisfied with his job. However, it can be argued that Alex does not belong to the category of theory X as he does not inherently dislike work. Alex prefers to perform challenging tasks. Consequently, it can be ascertained that Alex can be motivated and he can perform better if he is assigned with challenging works. On the other hand, Stephanie, who works for Jonathan, is quite satisfied with her work. She enjoys being a part of Jonathan’s team. Needs Theory of Motivation Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory of motivation intends to identify the internal factors that motivate an individual to contribute his/her best to the organization. Accordingly, the theory emphasized on the fact that, needs are regarded to be psychological which influence some type of behavioral responses in a human being. Moreover, the theory argued that a human being is motivated by unfulfilled needs. According to the theory, human needs can be categorized into a hierarchal form namely, physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Eventually, when all these needs are satisfied, people are motivated and committed towards the organization. In relation to the case, it can be stated that Alex’s psychological needs, safety needs and social needs seem to be satisfied. However, due to a lack of fulfillment of the esteem needs of Alex followed by self-actualization needs and due to the continuous failure of Dan to recognize his work, Alex has become de-motivated. On the contrary, Stephanie seems to be comfortable with her job and satisfied with Jonathan’s leadership. Hence, it can be argued that all the five basic needs postulated by Maslow are necessary for seeking highest employee motivation. Summarized Theories of Leadership and its Implications to the Case Participative Theories of Leadership The participative theory of leadership is concerned with influencing the behavior of subordinates with actively involving them in decision making process. Moreover, the theory emphasizes on consulting with subordinates on various issues and incorporating due respect to their opinions. Essentially, the theory is associated with ethics where leaders not only direct the efforts of their subordinates but also understand the various needs of their subordinates along with perceiving every individual as a team member and their efforts crucial for the success of the organization. In other words, the theory focuses on achieving a collaborated effort of the team towards the accomplishment of the organizational objectives rather than individual interests (House, 1996). With respect to the case, it can be postulated that Jonathan practices participative theory where the opinion of every individual is considered and respected. Jonathan also involves his employees in the decision making process and understands the needs of his employees better than Dan. It is because of his leadership approach and practice of participative theory that every individual is willing to work with Jonathan. Contingency Theories of Leadership The idea of contingency theory is not new, the theory was proposed by Fred Fielder in 1960. According to the theory, the leadership effectiveness depends on two factors. These two factors can be identified as the leadership task and situation aspects. Moreover, the theory claims that there is no perfect model of leadership. Additionally, the theory admits that it is the situation that determines what type of leadership style is to be followed in particular circumstances in order to achieve the pre-established organizational goals (Peretomode, 2012). In relation to the case, it can be identified that Dan follows a rigid leadership style which lacks flexibility. Irrespective of the situation, Dan strictly adheres to his leadership style which renders his employees dissatisfied. In other words, Dan fails to understand the need of the situation and also does not value his employees. Consequently, it is necessary that he considers the participative style of leadership or practices a flexible leadership approach according to the situation where every individual is treated equally as well as fairly. It will motivate his employees to give their best efforts towards the organization. References House, R. J. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. Leadership Quarterly 7 (3), pp. 323-352. Ndlovu, E. G. (2009). The impact of management on learner performance: Nhlophenkulu area. Stellenbosch University, pp. 1-128. Peretomode, O. (2012). Situational and contingency theories of leadership: Are they the same. Journal of Business and Management 4(3), pp. 13-17.