Need help with my writing homework on COMPARING PLANNING SYSTEMS: Critically examine and compare urban planning cultures in developed and developing countries and. Write a 2250 word paper answering; It is the author’s considered opinion that Japan is a worthy case study of planning culture in a non-western country since the country escaped the late 19th century colonization and enacted her own statutory planning policy in 1919. The historical chain of planning events in Japan points at a situation where the Japanese urban planning culture still directly influences the planning policies developed in the contemporary Japanese built environments. Analysis Although most planners argue as to portray planning as a universal concept, the essence of urban planning cultures questions this western-centred argument (Campbell and Fainstein 1996. Faludi 1973. Mandelbaum, Mazza, and Burchell 1996. Sanyal 2005). This is because planning systems in western states like England developed as a consequence of the negative effects of industrialization and urbanization (Cherry 1972. Hall 1996. Sutcliffe 1980).This This implies that planning policies in western nations like England emerged to solve urban ills such as environmental degradation and housing problems. This process enabled the western planners to reduce the effects of the ills that accompany market economy, and eventually served the needs of the majority working classes. On the flip, planning cultures in non-western countries like Japan emerged as a protest to a perceived western dominance and to enhance the spirit of national sovereignty through industrialization (Chatterjee 1993. Madanipour 2006). To adequately compare and analyses the urban planning cultures of Japan and England, it is imperative to study the influences that triggered Japan urbanism, including but not limited to: The Meiji Period, economic development of Japan, the dominance of central government, religious and philosophical dogmas, natural disasters and calamities, and technology (Tipton 2001) Meiji defiance against the imperialist order In 1853, USA fleets landed near Tokyo and Mathew Perry coerced the Japanese government to sign a treaty with the USA. It was the first time in 215 years that Japan was being forced to sign trade partnerships with a foreign country other than Netherlands and China. Japan also signed the same treaties with the UK (1854) and Russia (1857). In all these commercial treaties, Japan was not treated as an equal trade partner to the western countries. This was humiliating to Japan and disadvantageous to their economic interests. Japan was now faced with the real threat of colonization by western states. This situation triggered revolts and protests by the Japan feudal establishments (Tipton 2001). Initially, the public resentment was directed at foreign residents but later the hostility was driven to Tokugawa’s regime for what they viewed as failure of the regime to manage national security and sovereignty. Consequently, a regime change occurred and the lower-class Samurai alongside some wealthy aristocrats came into power (Norman and Dower 1975). Refreshed and reloaded, the new political regime immediately set out to build Japan as a sovereign modern-state nation against western imperialism spearheaded by UK and France.