Bureaucratic problem by human resource managers.

Bureaucracy, Taylorism, Fordism, and Post- Fordism and the shift towards post-bureaucracy Taylorism was concerned with applying principles of scientific management as propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor was considered too inhuman. Fordism meant applying the mass production way of manufacture as originally envisioned by Henry Ford. The features of this type of management were specialization, formal management-labor relations (labor unions), low skill, low adaptability, uniformity of production etc. This too was thought unfit in a dynamic and competitive consumer market. Post-Fordism is explained by Brusco as “the emergence since the mid-1960s of a significant demand for more varied and customized gods, produced in short series”.

It can be defined as “a system of administration characterized by specialization of functions, action according to fixed rules, and hierarchy of authority”. But as the above-mentioned definition denotes, the concept required high level of specialization, and adherence to rules and procedures, along with a strongly defined and elongated hierarchy with many layers between the worker and the top management. Post-bureaucracy, on the other hand, is a concept that removes these disadvantages in functioning as seen in the earlier management concepts. One of primary proponents of this theory was Heckscher and Donnellon, who argued that modern-day challenges of competition, cost reduction, and innovation cannot be met with the bureaucratic style of functioning.

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