1. Application of classical conditioning:
Behaviorism is a common theme discussed by Watson in chapter 2. Classical conditioning can be coupled with the fear a student has with speaking in front of the classroom and a traumatic experience is noted after laughter from classmates. An example is the stimulus transferred to simply reading aloud the class group while seated at their desk as the teacher rotates turns. The fear of being called to the front of the room or their own voice being heard out loud strikes the same uncomfortable feeling. Emotions evoked from people can create certain paths to be taken that are both favorable and pessimistic (Martinez, 2010).
Application of Operant Conditioning:
Operant conditioning is a method teachers in the K-12 educational setting utilize to illustrate how behaviors can have rewards and consequences. The introduction to reinforcement after the given response determines the action. For example, if students in a classroom are advised to display appropriate talking volumes during lunch then a reward of game play can be introduced afterwards. If the voice tones exceed the desired instruction, a punishment of quiet time or any non-preferred task as opposed to play will ensue.
2. Why knowledge of the behavioral view of learning is valuable to learning and instruction:
Knowledge of the behavioral view is important with educators because positive reinforcements and modeling behavior is essential when trying to elicit appropriate responses from the learners. “… A teacher’s knowledge, attitudes, or other characteristics are coorelated with teacher’s classroom teaching process which in turn effects changes in student behavior and/or achievement” (Cantrell, 1977, p. 172). When instructors set an example of behaviors to be mirrored, it is valuable to the students to gain the knowledge needed to success in the academic and professional world.
Cantrell, R. (1977). Teacher Knowledge, Attitudes, and Classroom Teaching Coorelates of Student Achievement. The Journal of Educational Psychology. Volume 69 (2). Pages 172-179.
Martinez, M. (2010). Learning and Cognition: The Design of the Mind. Boston, MA: Pearson