Answering questions separately based on book paths beyond ego section 4 readings.

I need help creating a thesis and an outline on Answering questions separately based on book paths beyond ego section 4 readings. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required. Psychology Drugs can be harmful or harmless depending on how they are taken. Legalization of all drugs would lead to destruction of the society’s morals, and the society’s level of health would depreciate. Casual drug use becomes an addiction when one can no longer operate normally without taking the drug. I would not take any drugs even if guaranteed safety. I would only take drugs to recover from illnesses.

Task 1

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The history of psychedelics dates back to around 5000 years ago. Hallucinogens have been used in different cultures mainly for medicinal purposes. Psychedelics were mainly used on religious ceremonies and for recreational purposes. Psychedelics were used in their natural forms like mushrooms and cacti. In the Native American communities, the effects of psychedelic drugs played an important role in ritualistic practice that occurred during sacred ceremonies. Fossil evidence proves that psychedelics were crucial in the development of the human society in most cultures.

Task 2

Psychedelic drug abuse exposes individuals to the risk of injury that may be caused by psychotic behaviors. Despite the drugs not having the risk of addiction, they expose the abuser to risks such as injury, thought misinterpretation, and risk of accidents. The drugs induce a “bad trip” which makes the abuser very anxious to the point that they cannot cope with their emotions (Walsh, and Vaughan 241). In extreme condition, the abusers can hurt themselves or even attempt to commit suicide.

Task 3

Research has proved that psychedelics do not have a negative effect on mental health as perceived earlier. When used correctly, psychedelics have proved to treat conditions such as alcoholism, anxiety and post traumatic stresses. This is because the patients are able to experience another viewpoint and insight to their problem. They are also used in psychotherapy course to treat severe depressions in patients with complex conditions.

Task 4

Holistic therapy is aimed at stimulating an altered consciousness state. A person is exposed to an environment such as listening to suggestive music with eyes closed so that the inner healing mechanism can be stimulated. It helps disconnect personal emotions with the activities of the body. It stimulates faster recovery from traumatic experiences. It helps people recharge from stressful experiences by giving room for grief to come forth.

Task 5

Every person has a deferring opinion on drug use. The kind of exposure, education, culture and religion background that a person has influences their opinions on drug use. It is less likely that an educated person and an uneducated person will have similar opinions on the use of a drug. The cultural beliefs of a person also determine their opinion on drug use. Previous experiences and exposure with the drug may alter ones opinion on drug use.

Task 6

James discovered that after the drug had worn off, all his mystical insights disappeared, and his mind was left with only tattered fragments. His experience wild nitrogen oxide proved to him that the human life was richly varied. He argued that there are many forms of consciousness that were only accessible through use of artificial intoxicants. Drugs helped him get a better understanding of aspects such as his religion by virtually travelling through the space of science and faith (Walsh, and Vaughan 259).

Task 7

Hallucinogens have components of nitrogen and are classified under alkaloids. According to Grof, there are four major types of hallucinogens. LCD {d-lysergic acid diethylamide} is manufactured from lysergic acid that is contained in ergot. Peyote is a cactus containing mescaline and can also be obtained through chemical synthesis. Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) is obtained from mushrooms that mainly grow in subtropical regions. PCP (phencyclidine) is another form of hallucinogen although it is rarely used due to its adverse effects.

Task 8

COEXs are classified as either positive or negative depending on whether the emotional experiences were pleasant or non-pleasant. A negative COEX requires a constant input of energy. It occurs when a person has to fight against bad feelings, depressions or even psychosis. It develops due to psychological damage. A positive COEX occurs after recovery from a negative COEX and during this period the person is no longer affected by their previous experiences. A person in the positive COEX has minimal depression and anxiety (Walsh, and Vaughan 264).

Task 9

Grof realized that some experiences in life were compulsory, and one had no choice over them (Walsh, and Vaughan 270). He realized that the beginning of life and its end have great similarities since the party involved has no choice to it. He argued that nobody meditated about being born, and similar nobody mediated about dying. He viewed the experience under psychedelics as similar to birth and death processes. His reasoning is valid and supported with logical evidence and therefore I agree with him

Task 10

Grof believes that chakras, LSD and Kundalini are all similar since they make the patient experience a temporary mental unconsciousness. He argues that they are all similar since they initiate unconscious experiences that are followed by realization. They are all aimed at attaining various forms of natural capacity of healing.

Works Cited

Walsh, Roger N, and Frances E. Vaughan. Paths Beyond Ego: The Transpersonal Vision. Los Angeles, CA: J.P. Tarcher/Perigee, 1993. Print.

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