Need help with my writing homework on Indoor Air Quality-Application of Risk Assessment and Risk Management Models. Write a 2000 word paper answering; According to WHO (2006), indoor air pollution is the eighth major risk factor which contributes to around 2.7 per cent of the diseases worldwide. Further, estimates show that the people living in developing nations, particularly women and children are more affected by indoor air pollution due to their reliance on biofuels like coal, dung, wood etc (WHO 2006). Thus indoor air quality has been a major area of concern for scientists and policymakers in recent years due to its implications for health and welfare. Hence, the risk assessment and risk management of indoor air quality deserve special attention. This report discusses the risk assessment and risk management of indoor quality using the NAS model. The NAS model consists of hazard assessment, exposure assessment, risk characterization and risk management (Common Wealth of Australia 2002). All these steps focusing on indoor air quality are discussed in detail in the following sections.
A hazard is defined as an agent’s ability to produce any harmful effect on the environment or health. It is not the same as a risk but can be the factor that can be a source of risk or risk factor. Hazard assessment involves two steps. They are hazard identification and dose-response assessment (Common Wealth of Australia 2002).In the hazard identification stage of indoor air quality, it is determined whether or not particular agents of indoor air are harmful to health or the environment. The hazard identification for indoor quality is done based on epidemiological, toxicological and occupational or indoor studies. Hazard identification describes qualitatively the capability of agents to produce harmful effects. It is based on indoor observations that may potentially create adverse impacts on health or the environment (EC 2000).
After identifying the hazards, the next step is the doze response assessment. This describes quantitatively the links between the agents and adverse effects. The dose assessment is done using chamber studies and time series epidemiological studies. .