A survey of preferences among frequent air travelers will be conducted at airports nationwide.

1. A survey of preferences among frequent air travelers will be conducted at airports nationwide. Prior to asking target questions regarding respondent preferences, which of the following should occur?

A. Questions about travelers’ socioeconomic status should be asked.

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B. Free-response questions should be asked to determine participants’ likely answers.

C. Screen questions should ensure that participants are frequent air travelers.

D. Branching questions can distinguish between frequent air travelers and less frequent travelers. 

2. U.S. News and World Report is assessing the reliability of its measure of academic reputation used in its annual ranking of colleges and universities. To do so, it administers the same questions on academic reputation to its sample of academic administrators in March and again in June. Academic reputation is measured with five questions about each university. Which test will assess the extent to which those five items reflect academic reputation?

A. Cronbach’s alpha

B. Split-half

C. Test-retest

D. KR20

3. The New York Times dining section rates the restaurants it reviews using a system such that one star means good, two stars means very good, three stars means excellent, and four stars means extraordinary. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by this rating scheme?

A. Classification and order

B. Classification, order, and distance

C. Classification only

D. Classification, order, distance, and origin

4. What is the goal of measurement in research?

A. To specify the empirical information needed

B. To provide the highest-quality, lowest-error data for data analysis

C. To reflect both quantitative and qualitative concepts

D. To describe, explain, and make predictions based on the information 

5. An attitude scale that correctly forecasts the outcome of a purchase decision has _______ validity.

A. concurrent

B. discriminant

C. predictive

D. content

 6. What is the basis of the attitude reflected in the statement, “It’s so annoying when people use their cell phones in restaurants”?

A. Behavioral

B. Conative

C. Cognitive

D. Affective

7. The ordinal measurement scale

A. includes an indication of order or sequence.

B. can be grouped into two or more categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive.

C. includes a fixed or equal interval.

D. provides for an absolute zero or origin. 

8. Assuming that the sampling frame is appropriate, systematic variance in a study can be minimized by

A. increasing the sample size.

B. increasing response rates.

C. decreasing the sample size.

D. contacting nonrespondents. 

9. Which of the following statements about the number of scale points is false?

A. Additional scale points increase measurement sensitivity.

B. Reliability increases as the number of scale points increase.

C. Larger numbers of scale points provide the ability to extract more variance.

D. Validity decreases as the number of scale points increase

10. In a study of college search behaviors among the families of college-bound high school students, the search behaviors are very different from family to family. In the situation described, which guideline below best explains why the researcher will use a larger sample size?

A. The greater the desired precision of the estimate, the larger the sample should be.

B. The greater the number of subgroups of interest within a sample, the larger the sample must be.

C. The higher the level of confidence in the estimate, the larger the sample must be.

D. The greater the variance within the population, the larger the sample should be. 

11. Which of the following statements is true of multiple-choice questions?

A. They require participants to position responses on a companion scale that may be verbal, numeric, or graphic.

B. They can introduce significant error, as these questions imply that one response is favored over another.

C. They’re appropriate when there are more than two alternatives.

D. They cover sociological-demographic variables for later grouping and study of revealed patterns.

12. Which of the following statements is true concerning the applicability of attitudes in understanding behavior?

A. A single, global measure of attitude is necessary to predict behavior.

B. General attitudes are the best predictors of behavior.

C. Cognitive attitudes influence behavior better than affective-based attitudes.

D. Behavior is affected equally by those attitudes formed via social learning and those formed via behavioral learning

13. Which type of rater error occurs when a participant consistently chooses the extreme position at one end of the scale?

A. Error of leniency

B. Halo effect

C. Demand effect

D. Error of central tendency

14. Which of the following best defines the interval measurement scale?

A. Information that can be grouped into two or more categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive, with an indication of order or sequence

B. Information that can be grouped into two or more categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive, with an indication of order or sequence, plus a fixed or equal interval, plus the provision for an absolute zero or origin

C. Information that can be grouped into two or more categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive, with an indication of order or sequence, plus a fixed or equal interval

D. Information that can be grouped into two or more categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive

15. Choosing between the questions “Do you think the distribution of soft drinks is adequate?” (Incorrect) and “Do you think soft drinks are readily available when you want to buy them?” (Correct) is an example of

A. avoiding leading questions.

B. presuming knowledge.

C. avoiding biased words.

D. ensuring the right frame of reference.

 16. In a study of grocery shopping behavior, one of the questions asked was, “Why do you shop at this grocery store?” The question was a multiple-choice, closed-ended question and offered the following response options: (a) it is near my home, (b) it is on my way home from work, (c) the prices are reasonable, (d) it offers a good selection, and (e) it stocks the items I like to buy. This question should be redesigned because

A. the response options aren’t mutually exclusive.

B. it’s double-barreled.

C. it requests sensitive information that people might not answer.

D. it’s too general

17. In questionnaire design, the term funnel approach means to

A. branch out from buffer questions to target questions.

B. begin with general questions, then move to more specific questions.

C. move from screen questions to buffer questions to classification questions.

D. begin with buffer questions and end with screen questions. 

18. A _______ scale measures the psychological meanings of an attitude object using bipolar adjectives.

A. semantic differential

B. summated rating

C. constant-sum

D. Stapel 

19. The data obtained from a Stapel scale can be analyzed in the same way as data obtained with a _______ scale.

A. dichotomous

B. constant sum

C. semantic differential

D. multiple-choice, multiple-response 

20. The purpose of _______ is to get a conceptual representation of a sorters’s attitude toward the attitude object and to compare the relationships between people.

A. comparative scales

B. Likert scales

C. Q-sorts

D. forced rating

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