________ is never simple, yet understanding it is the essential task of marketing management.

Q1. ________ is never simple, yet understanding it is the essential task of marketing management.a. Understanding the difference between primary and secondary datab. Consumer buying behaviorc. Consumption pioneeringd. Brand personalitye. Early adoptionQ2. During which stage of the business buying process is a buyer most likely to conduct value analysis, carefully studying components to determine if they can be redesigned, standardized, or made less expensive?a. product specificationb. proposal solicitationc. general need recognitiond. performance reviewe. order-routine specificationQ3. ________ are groups to which an individual wishes to belong, as when a teenage basketball player hopes to play someday for the Los Angeles Lakers.a. Leading adopter groupsb. Aspirational groupsc. Membership groupsd. Social class groupse. Leisure groupsQ4. A ________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction.a. cultureb. perceptionc. motived. traditione. stimulusQ5. ________ describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience.a. Aggressivenessb. Learningc. Lifestyled. Perceptione. Cognitive dissonanceQ6. Leona purchased two bottles of wine from vineyards in Australia. When asked her opinion of the wine, she said the burgundy wine tasted like alcoholic grape juice, but the Chablis had a crisp taste that she really enjoyed. These statements were made during the ________ stage of the purchase decision.a. information searchb. alternative evaluationc. postpurchase behaviord. purchase decisione. situational analysisQ7. Which statement is true regarding social class in the United States?a. People are relegated to a permanent class layer in the United States.b. Lines between social classes in the United States are fixed and rigid.c. Social classes show distinct product preferences in clothing and automobiles.d. Wealth is more critical than education level in measuring social class.e. Social class is determined primarily by income level.Q8. Which of the following statements about buying centers is true?a. The buying center roles are specified on the organizational chart.b. The buying center may involve informal participants who are not obvious to sellers.c. The buying center is like a standing committee.d. An individual’s role in the buying center does not change.e. The typical buying center has five employees, one to assume each of the buying center’s roles.Q9. ________, the fastest-growing U.S. demographic segment, now number more than 46 million.a. Hispanicsb. African Americansc. Gays and lesbiansd. Mature consumerse. Asian AmericansQ10. A(n) ________ is a descriptive thought that a person has about something.a. motiveb. beliefc. perceptiond. lifestylee. attitudeQ11. In general, a company should enter only segments in which it can ________ and ________.a. offer superior value; ship fasterb. offer lower prices; ship fasterc. identify behaviors; understand spending powerd. offer superior value; gain advantages over competitorse. gain advantages over competitors; offer new productsQ12. A company or market offer can be differentiated along the lines of product, image, services, channels, or ________.a. nonprice factorsb. customer servicec. peopled. locatione. pricesQ13. The answer to the customer’s question, “Why should I buy your brand?” is found in the ________.a. quality imageb. customer servicesc. value propositiond. pricing and promotion structuree. differentiationQ14. The markets you have chosen to serve in four western states can be effectively reached and served. You would tell the marketing manager that these segments are ________.a. substantialb. actionablec. profitabled. accessiblee. measurableQ15. By studying its less loyal buyers, a company can detect which brands are most ________ with its own.a. similarb. competitivec. often overlookedd. complementarye. usedQ16. ________ marketing tailors brands and promotions to the needs and wants of specific cities, neighborhoods, and even stores.a. Undifferentiatedb. Nichec. Differentiatedd. Variablee. LocalQ17. Your firm has decided to localize its products and services to meet local market demands. A good approach to use would be ________ segmentation.a. customerb. imagec. geographicd. benefite. end-useQ18. Target marketing sometimes generates controversy and concern. Issues usually involve the targeting of ________ consumers with ________ products.a. vulnerable or disadvantaged; controversial or potentially harmfulb. elderly; expensivec. mass market; deceptived. young; appealinge. vulnerable; marketingQ19. It is most accurate to say that successful niche marketing relies on a firm’s ________ and its ________.a. competitive advantage in comparison to mass-market companies; affordable pricingb. marketing strategy; servicesc. individual relationships with customers; positioningd. superior products; value network partnerse. greater knowledge of customers’ needs; special reputationQ20. When Wal-Mart customizes its merchandise store by store to meet shopper needs, it is practicing ________.a. social segmentationb. individual marketingc. psychographic marketingd. local marketinge. niche marketingQ21. What are the two dimensions of product quality?a. conformance and styleb. performance and resistancec. features and designd. design and innovatione. level and consistencyQ22. Which of the following is an advantage offered by co-branding?a. Brand equity is stabilized.b. Retailers have exclusive products that cannot be purchased from competitors.c. Manufacturers do not have to invest in creating their own brand names.d. Advertising, sales, promotion, and marketing must be carefully coordinated.e. A company can expand its existing brand into a category it otherwise might have difficulty entering alone.Q23. Service perishability means that ________.a. evaluation of services is subjective and it changes from customer to customerb. the quality of services depends on who provides them as well as when, where, and how they are providedc. services cannot be stored for later sale or used. services cannot be seen, tasted, felt, heard, or smelled before they are boughte. services cannot be separated from their providers, whether the providers are people or machinesQ24. ________ products are those products that are purchased for further processing or for use in conducting a business.a. Unsoughtb. Specialtyc. Shoppingd. Industriale. ConvenienceQ25. Product mix ________ refers to the number of different product lines the company carries.a. heightb. lengthc. widthd. depthe. perimeterQ26. ________ occurs when a company introduces additional items in a given product category under the same brand name, such as new flavors, forms, colors, ingredients, or package sizes.a. Service variabilityb. A product mixc. A line extensiond. Interactive marketinge. Service intangibilityQ27. The use of commercial marketing concepts and tools in programs designed to influence individuals’ behavior to improve their well-being and that of their community is called ________ marketing.a. advocacyb. associativec. organizationald. sociale. integrativeQ28. ________ products are distributed exclusively in only one or a few outlets per market area and they have unique characteristics or brand identification.a. Unsoughtb. Tertiaryc. Transactionald. Conveniencee. SpecialtyQ29. A ________ is defined as anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need.a. productb. service variabilityc. service encounterd. private brande. serviceQ30. The service profit chain consists of five links. Which of the following is one of these five links?a. increased service inseparabilityb. decreased costc. broader service mixd. increased service variabilitye. satisfied and loyal customersQ31. Through ________, broad communities of people (customers, employees, independent scientists and researchers, and even the public at large) are invited into the new-product innovation process.a. outsourcingb. sole sourcingc. brainstormingd. crowdsourcinge. test marketingQ32. Many marketers are using simulated marketing technologies to reduce the cost of ________.a. concept testingb. marketing strategy developmentc. product developmentd. concept developmente. test marketingQ33. A review of the sales, costs, and profit projections for a new product to find out whether they satisfy the company’s objectives is called a ________.a. vendor analysisb. portfolio analysisc. business analysisd. SWOT analysise. concept analysisQ34. Which of the following statements best explains why idea screening may be the most import step of new product development?a. It increases the number of ideas generated.b. It saves the company money in product development costs by giving the green light to only the product ideas that are likely to be profitable.c. Some ideas that will become market disasters may be originally viewed favorably by the idea screeners.d. It gives research and development team members an opportunity to gather consumer feedback.e. Some potentially profitable ideas may be ill perceived by the idea screeners.Q35. In which stage of the PLC will promotional expenditures be especially high in an attempt to create consumer awareness?a. adoptionb. product developmentc. growthd. maturitye. introductionQ36. New product development starts with ________.a. idea screeningb. test marketingc. concept testingd. idea generatione. concept developmentQ37. A ________ is the way consumers perceive an actual or potential product.a. product auditb. product featurec. product imaged. product frameworke. product mixQ38. The purpose of idea generation is to create a ________ of ideas. The purpose of succeeding stages is to ________ that number.a. large number; increaseb. large number; reducec. small number; increased. small number; reducee. limited number; sustainQ39. ________ is a new-product development approach in which one company department works to complete its stage of the process before passing the new product along to the next department and stage.a. Simultaneous product developmentb. Sequential product developmentc. Product life-cycle analysisd. Micromarketinge. Team-based product developmentQ40. Under what circumstances might it be wise for a company to do little or no test marketing?a. when a new product requires a major investmentb. when management is unsure of the projected demand for the productc. when management is implementing a mass marketing programd. when the product has no substitutes and is new in its categorye. when the costs of developing and introducing the product are low

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